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Basic Information about the Journal
Journal title: Journal of Tea science
Inscription of journal title: ZHU De
Responsible Institution: China Association for Science and Technology
Sponsored by: China Tea Science Society
Tea Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
Editing and Publishing: Editorial Office, Journal of Tea science
Start time: 1964
No. of issues: Bi-monthly
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    Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen Distribution in Aggregates from Yellow-red Soils Under Tea Plantations with Different Fertilizer Managements
    WANG Limin, HUANG Dongfeng, LI Qinghua, HE Chunmei, ZHANG Hui, LIU Cailing, LI Fangliang, HUANG Yibin
    Journal of Tea Science    2018, 38 (4): 342-352.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.04.002
    Abstract110)      PDF(pc) (819KB)(502)       Save
    Application of livestock manures and plant residues is a feasible practice to largely mitigate soil-degradative trends by increasing amounts of organic matter. However, long-term effects of fertilization regimes on the distribution of organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in aggregate size fractions were poorly documented in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) plantations in subtropical areas. A 10-year study was thus conducted to elucidate the impacts of fertilization patterns on the stability and allocation of TOC, TN and C/N ratio within water stable aggregate (WSA) fractions in soils under non-fertilization control (CK), chemical fertilizers only (CF), and integrated use of chicken manure and legume straw with chemical fertilizers (IF), respectively. Soil (0-20 cm) samples were collected and separated into ≥2, <2-1, <1-0.5, <0.5-0.25 and <0.25-0.106βmm aggregate classes by wet sieving, and finally used for TOC and TN analysis. The results showed that the IF treatment significantly (P<0.05) increased TOC and TN storage in all aggregate fractions relative to that of CK. Irrespective of the fertilization patterns, tea soils in subtropical China stored higher amounts of TOC and TN in the ≥2βmm water-stable fraction. In terms of the TOC and TN storage, the order of different aggregate fractions in IF- and CF-treated soils was (≥2β mm ) > (<0.5-0.25βmm) > (<1-0.5βmm) > (<2-1βmm) > (<0.25-0.106βmm), whereas that of CK-treated soils was (≥2βmm) > (<1-0.5βmm) > (<0.5-0.25βmm) > (<2-1βmm) > (<0.25-0.106βmm). Furthermore, the percentage of WSA ≥2βmm ranged from 54.95% under CK to 66.97% under IF treatment. Furthermore, TOC and TN adhered to WSA ≥2βmm, which accounted for 33.31%~45.45% of TOC and 33.76%~46.60% of TN in bulk soils under all treatments. Meanwhile, the IF treatment significantly (P<0.05) increased mean weight diameter (MWD) of aggregates as compared to that in CK- and CF- treated soils. However, a lower C:N ratio was observed in different aggregate fractions in IF-treated soils compared with that of CK. Additionally, WSA ≥2βmm was positively and significantly correlated with TN and TOC contents. In conclusion, the IF treatment improved aggregate stability, increased C and N storage in bulk soil and aggregates, and thus enhanced soil quality in tea farms in subtropical China.
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    Research Progress of Cellulase and Pectinase in the Extraction of Tea Leaves
    GONG Yu-lei, WEI Chun, WANG Zhi-biao, SHEN Xue-liang
    Journal of Tea Science    2013, 33 (4): 311-321.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2013.04.004
    Abstract148)      PDF(pc) (1179KB)(461)       Save
    Tea is one of the most widely consumed soft beverages. Tea beverages more excellent in flavor and formation of less deposits are more preferred. With the development of modern biotechnology, the microbial enzymes are applied in the extraction process of tea leaves. The cell walls of tea leaf and proteins are easy to be hydrolyzed, and the formation of precipitates can be avoided. The extract yields of polyphenols, thearubigins and amino acids were increased. And the tea qualities including color, odour and flavor improved accordingly. In this article, the hydrolytic enzymes including cellulase, pectinase, tannase and protease are introduced in detail, and their applications in tea extraction process are reviewed. The prospects of complex enzymes system in tea extraction process are also previewed.
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    Cited: Baidu(11)
    Leaching Pattern of Internal Substances and Xenobiotic Pollutants during Tea Brewing
    CHEN Hongping, LIU Xin, LU Chengyin, QIU Jing
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (1): 63-76.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.20200117.008
    Abstract202)      PDF(pc) (497KB)(423)       Save
    Based on the recent literatures, the dissolving, releasing and transformation patterns of tea internal compounds and exogenous contaminants were summarized and discussed in this study. Physicochemical properties of chemicals and tea brewing methods are the internal and external cause affecting extraction rates of chemicals during tea brewing. Internal cause plays a crucial role in extraction rates, while external cause is more prominent for the leaching of tea internal substances. Water solubility of chemicals is positively correlated with extraction rates, while octanol-water partition is negatively correlated with extraction rates. Increasing water temperature is helpful for increasing extraction rates of chemicals and their concentrations in tea infusion. Brewing time is negatively correlated with extraction rates in a period of time, while the concentrations of chemicals in tea infusion increase with the brewing time. Compared with other pesticides, most of neonicotine pesticides and carbamate pesticides have higher extraction rates over 60%. The results of extraction rates of metal elements in tea infusion are quite different, and extraction rates of fluorine, nickel and cobalt have high extraction rates over 50%, while extraction rates of lead range from 20% to 50%. Metabonomic analysis based-high resolution mass spectrometry technique is a promising and powerful method for profiling extracting pattern of chemicals during tea brewing. Meanwhile, extracting behavior of toxic compounds during tea brewing will be deeply understood by using thermodynamic theory and kinetic model of mass extraction.
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    Research Progress on Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Liupao Tea
    MA Wanjun, MA Shicheng, LIU Chunmei, LONG Zhirong, TANG Baojun, LIN Zhi, LYU Haipeng
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (3): 289-304.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.03.001
    Abstract417)      PDF(pc) (1369KB)(394)       Save
    Liupao tea is a kind of distinctive dark tea products in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region with a long history of production and marketing. It has unique flavor quality characteristics and health-care effects, which has attracted much attention in recent years. In this paper, the research progress on chemical composition and biological activity of Liupao tea over the last 20 years was reviewed, and the future research interests of Liupao tea were also discussed preliminarily.
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    Study on Primitive Morpheme in Sensory Terminology and Flavor Wheel Construction of Chinese Tea
    ZHANG Yingbin, LIU Xu, LU Chengyin
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (4): 474-483.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.20190530.001
    Abstract787)      PDF(pc) (891KB)(357)       Save
    The critical work of perfecting sensory terms is to further set the rules for the complex terms by extracting, classifying and defining primitive morphemes. Based on the standard GB/T 14487—2017 (Terms of tea sensory tests), a total of 137 primitive morphemes were extracted, including 48 appearance and brewed leaves terms, 17 color terms, 46 aroma terms, 13 flavor terms and 13 degree terms. These primitive morphemes were also defined in English and Japanese. Through the analysis of the composition and semantics of these terms, Chinese tea color wheel, taste wheel, aroma wheel and sensory attributes wheel were constructed depending on practical tea sensory evaluation experience.
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    Effects of Polyphenols of Old Fu Brick Tea on the Elderly Intestinal Flora
    WU Genliang, HOU Aixiang, LI Ke, LI Zongjun
    Journal of Tea Science    2018, 38 (3): 319-330.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.03.013
    Abstract146)      PDF(pc) (1529KB)(342)       Save
    To reveal the influences of tea polyphenols of old Fu brick teas on the diversity and composition of intestinal microflora in the elderly, the tea polyphenols were extracted and purified from Fu brick teas stored for 1 year and 7 years, and the isometric tea polyphenol extracts were added into the mixed medium of intestinal flora of elderly men (65 years) for the anaerobic static culture in vitro. The contents of tea polyphenols and short chain fatty acids(SCFAs)of the seven years’ tea group(O group), one year’s tea group(N group) and the blank group(B group) were determined at 0βh, 4βh, 8βh, 12βh and 24βh. High-throughput sequencing of intestinal flora and relative bioinformatics analysis were also performed. The results showed that the polyphenols of seven years’ Fu brick tea had better effects on the increase of SCFA contents, the abundance and diversity of the intestinal flora of the elderly as compared with the control. The relative abundance of Escherichia and γ-Proteobacteria_B38 at 4βh and 12βh were significantly reduced, and the relative abundance of Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium and Faecalibacterium were also increased in O group. The above results showed that the tea polyphenol of seven years’ Fu brick tea is more beneficial to the improvement of intestinal microflora in the elderly, which was of a high potential value to the health of elderly.
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    Analysis of the Tea Projects Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China from 1999 to 2019
    XIONG Xingping, ZHANG Xinzhong, YANG Zhenwei
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (3): 305-318.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.03.002
    Abstract339)      PDF(pc) (380KB)(305)       Save
    Based on the tea projects supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) from 1999 to 2019, a statistical analysis was carried out from the aspects of supporting year, category, department, nature of the supporting units, distribution of the supporting regions, project leaders and branches of disciplines. The current situation, characteristics and development trends of basic tea research in China were explored and the existing problems and shortcomings were discussed and analyzed. The purpose of study was to provide reference for the selection of ideas and scientific research development for tea scientists.
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    Cloning and Expression Analysis of Serine Protease EoSP1 in Tea Geometrid (Ectropis obliqua) and Its Response to Starvation
    ZHANG Xin, Chen Chengcong, DU Qin, LI Xiwang, SUN Xiaoling
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (6): 669-680.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.06.006
    Abstract109)      PDF(pc) (719KB)(286)       Save
    Serine protease plays an important role in the digestion process of Lepidoptera insects. In this study, we cloned a serine protease encoding gene EoSP1 from Ectropis obliqua and analyzed its basic characteristics and expression patterns. The coding sequence of EoSP1 is 858 bp, encoding 285 amino acid residues with deduced molecular weight of 29.53 kDa and isoelectric point of 5.44. Compared with other serine proteases, EoSP1 contains conserved serine protease catalytic sites (H95, A161 and S328) and protein interaction domains, and shows the closest relationship with SPs from Mamestra configurata. Further, EoSP1-GST fusion protein similar to the predicted size was purified from E. coli cells. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression level of EoSP1 was much higher in larvae than that in adults, pupae and eggs, and expressed in midgut of larvae specifically. EoSP1 was down-regulated by starvation treatment, and the expression level was change back to that of control group after re-feeding. The above results provide a basis for the function analysis of digestive enzyme and screening of new insect-resistance targets in Ectropis obliqua.
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    Research Advances on the Drought-Resistance Mechanism and Strategy of Tea Plant
    LIU Shengchuan, CHEN Liang
    Journal of Tea Science    2014, 34 (2): 111-121.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2014.02.001
    Abstract160)      PDF(pc) (975KB)(286)       Save
    Drought is one of the pivotal meteorological disasters affecting tea production. Responses of tea plant to drought and rehydration are very complex, so it is vital to study drought-resistance mechanism for exploring relative genetic resources, improving water use efficiency and drought resistance, developing water-saving and drought-resistance cultivation and subsequent reducing losses. Here, effects of drought stress on growth, development, production and quality of tea were presented. We try to provide a brief insight into how tea plant responds to drought and rehydration. Some recent studies on strategies for water-saving and drought-resistance cultivation and subsequent recovery had been reviewed, and major research trends were discussed.
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    Effects of Co-fermentation by Eurotium cristatum and Lactobacillus plantarum on the Quality of Green Tea Liquid Beverage
    TU Zheng, MEI Huiling, LI Huan, LIU Xinqiu, Emmanuel Arkorful, ZHANG Caili, CHEN Xuan, SUN Kang, LI Xinghui
    Journal of Tea Science    2018, 38 (5): 496-507.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.05.007
    Abstract198)      PDF(pc) (1244KB)(278)       Save
    In order to inhibit the degradation of catechins in fermented green tea liquid beverage fermented by E. cristatum, the co-fermentation of L. plantarum and E. cristatum to green tea liquid beverage was conducted. The processing technology was optimized by response surface methodology. Besides, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and headspace solid-phase microextraction tandem mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GS-MS) method were used to detect the catechin contents and aroma components in the combined fermented green tea liquid beverage. The results showed that under the premise of 10βg·L-1 of dry tea and 10βmL·L-1 of E. cristatum, the optimal technological conditions for the combined fermentation of green tea liquid beverage were L. plantarum 20βmL·L-1, sucrose 75βg·L-1, and stationary fermentation at 30℃ for 3 days. The total catechin concentration in the joint fermented green tea liquid beverage under this process was 1β419.94βμg·mL-1, which was significantly higher than unfermented green tea liquid beverage (848.72βμg·mL-1) (P<0.05). And the contents of alcohol compounds (30.27%), aldehyde compounds (15.25%), hydrocarbon compounds (11.35%), ester compounds (9.86%) and ketone compounds (9.01%) were significantly increased (P<0.05) compared with unfermented green tea liquid beverage.
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    Prevention of Tea Polyphenols on Atherosclerosis and Relative Mechanisms
    ZHANG Shuping, WANG Yuefei, XU Ping
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (3): 231-246.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.03.001
    Abstract485)      PDF(pc) (749KB)(271)    PDF(mobile) (748KB)(85)    Save
    Atherosclerosis is the pathological basis of many cardiovascular diseases. Its injury to the cardiovascular could cause damage to other organs. Numerous data had indicated that tea polyphenols have a good preventive effect on atherosclerosis, such as anti-inflammatory, regulating blood lipid levels, inhibiting LDL oxidation, improving endothelial function and maintaining the stability of atherosclerotic plaque. The aim of this article is to review the health benefits of tea polyphenols against atherosclerosis and to outline the molecular mechanisms of tea polyphenols in atherosclerosis prevention.
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    Transcriptome Analysis of the Tea Leaves (Camellia sinensis var. assamica) Infected by Tea Blister Blight
    SUN Yunnan, XU Yan, RAN Longxun, JIANG Huibing, SONG Weixi, XIA Lifei, CHEN Linbo, LIANG Mingzhi
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (1): 113-124.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.01.001
    Abstract119)      PDF(pc) (798KB)(270)       Save
    Illumina HiSeq2500, a high-through transcriptome sequencing technology, was applied for transcriptome analysis of tea leaves infected by tea blister blight. Through differential expression analysis, a total of 359 differentially expressed genes (DEGs)were identified after infection, of which 248 were up-regulated and 111 were down-regulated. With GO function annotation classifications, a total of 216 genes were divided into 122 function categories. The mainly involved functional categories included biological synthesis process, catalytic activity, cell process and many other physiological and biochemical processes. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that a total of 106 genes were annotated to 47 metabolic pathways, with monoterpenoid biosynthesis, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, ribosome, nitrogen metabolism, diterpenoid biosynthesis, plant-pathogen interaction pathway significantly enriched. There were 32 differentially expressed transcription factors (TFs). Those TFs were classified into 16 families. qRT-PCR of randomly selected differentially expressed genes was used to validate transcriptome result, which showed high consistence. The result shows that tea tree response to pathogen infection is a complicated process. A number of genes were induced or suppressed. Disease-resistant transcription factors were highly activated and up-regulated. This study provided a theoretical basis for identifying tea resistance genes and potential molecular mechanism.
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    Biochemical and Molecular Biological Basis on The Anticarcinogenic Activity of Tea Polyphenolic Compounds
    CHEN Zong-mao
    Journal of Tea Science    2003, 23 (2): 83-93.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2003.02.001
    Abstract129)      PDF(pc) (495KB)(269)       Save
    The progress in the investigation of anticarcinogenic activity of tea polyphenols and its biochemical and molecular biological mechanisms in the world in recent 5 years were analyzed and reviewed in this paper. The mechanism of anticarcinogenic activity was discussed from the following 5 aspects: antioxidative activity, modulation on the key enzymes, blockage of signal transduction, antiangiogenic activity and the apotopsis of cancer cells. The developmental prospect and the investigational tendency of tea polyphenols in the future were discussed.
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    Cited: Baidu(43)
    Cloning and Response Analysis of the CsMDHAR Gene Under the Abiotic Stress in Camellia sinensis
    LIN Shijia, LI Hui, LIU Hao, TENG Ruimin, LIU Jingyu, WANG Shuang, ZHUANG Jing
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (5): 495-505.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.05.001
    Abstract250)      PDF(pc) (1290KB)(264)       Save
    In this study, a MDHAR gene (CsMDHAR) was cloned from Camellia sinensis cv. ‘Longjing 43’ based on the transcriptome data of tea plant. Sequence analysis shows that the open reading frame length of CsMDHAR was 1β305βbp, encoding 434 amino acids with a molecular weight of approximately 47.21βkDa and the theoretical isoelectric point of 5.99. CsMDHAR was a hydrophilic protein, including two unordered regions and 32 phosphorylation sites. CsMDHAR belonged to Pyr-redox-2 super-family containing a highly conserved region called FAD domain, and mainly composed of α-helix and random coil. PlantCARE and PLACE database prediction analysis suggest that there were many cis-elements related to light, hormones and stress resistance in the 1β000βbp upstream region of CsMDHAR gene. The expression profiles of CsMDHAR, CsAO and CsAPX in tea cv ‘Longjing 43’ and ‘Yingshuang’ under high temperature, low temperature, drought, and salt treatments were detected by qRT-PCR. The results indicate that the expression profiles of CsMDHAR, CsAO and CsAPX were suppressed under 4℃, and there were no significantly differences in ‘Longjing 43’ and ‘Yingshuang’. However, the expression profiles of CsMDHAR gene were upregulated under 38℃ or 200βg·L-1 PEG treatments in ‘Longjing 43’, with the highest 2.5 and 5 times of the control at 8βh and 2βh, respectively. In addition, the expression trends of CsAO and CsAPX in both cultivars were similar under NaCl (200βmmol·L-1) treatment, but the variation ranges were different, which might be related to the different stress response in tea plant.
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    Cloning and Expression Analysis of CsPPH Gene in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)
    ZHOU Zhe, CHEN Zhidan, WU Quanjin, XU Yilan, SUN Weijiang
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (1): 39-50.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.20200117.007
    Abstract153)      PDF(pc) (1572KB)(241)       Save
    Pheophytinase (PPH) is a key enzyme in chlorophyll degradation. It can convert pheophytin a into pheophorbide a, which is the last product to keep green in chlorophyll degradation pathway. This step is considered to be a key step of leaf senescence and yellowing. In this study, the full-length sequence of CsPPH gene was cloned from the new shoot leaves of albino tea plant Camellia sinensis cv. Baijiguan (MK359094), and its biological characteristics were analyzed. The full-length of CsPPH was 1 298 bp, and the ORF was 1 241 bp, encoding 413 amino acids. Sequence analysis indicated that the encoded protein was a stable hydrophobic protein, and its molecular weight was predicted to be 45 741.50 Da. Its theoretical isoelectric point was 6.12. It was mainly located in chloroplasts. The real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR showed that under shading conditions, the expression of CsPPH was inhibited, chlorophyll increased and leaf color turned green. Light promoted the expression of CsPPH in leaves of cv. Baijiguan, and chlorophyll degradation led to leaf albinism.
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    Effect of High Concentrations of Cd Stress on the Physiological Characteristics, Absorbtion and Accumulation in Tea Plant
    WANG Chun-mei, TANG Qian, ZHANG Xiao-qin, ZHANG Dong-chuan
    Journal of Tea Science    2012, 32 (2): 107-114.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2012.02.010
    Abstract80)      PDF(pc) (671KB)(241)       Save
    :Through the soil pot experiment, investigation on the influence of high concentrations of cadmium stress on the growth, absorbtion and accumulation physical characteristics of tea plant by using Mingshanbaihao cultivar as testing material. The results showed that: Tea plants did not show obvious symptoms under the cadmium concentration of 0~120 mg/kg. The growth of various organs, chlorophyll synthesis and photosynthesis were significantly inhibited by increasing concentrations of Cd. Superoxide dismutase(SOD), peroxidase(POD), catalase(CAT) activity were gradually reduced accordingly. The content of malondialdehyde(MDA), proline(Pro) and relative conductivity(RC) increased substantially. Cadmium in various organs(y) had a significant or highly significant positive correlation with Cd concentration(x1) and available cadmium content in soil(x2). The order of cadmium contents in various organs was Fibrous roots> Roots> Stems> Branches> Leaves> New sterns>. The migration of available cadmium in soil from the underground parts to aboveground parts was the main source of cadmium in tea plants. Cadmium in tea plants mostly fixed by fibrous roots and roots, simultaneously, only a low ratio was transported to aboveground.
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    Cited: Baidu(5)
    Identification of Meitan Cuiya Tea Grades Based on Visible-Near-Infrared Technology
    PENG Qingwei, LIU Yun, YU Jiancheng, WEI Xiaonan, TANG Yanlin
    Journal of Tea Science    2017, 37 (5): 458-464.  
    Abstract117)      PDF(pc) (876KB)(238)       Save
    In order to distinguish tea grade by using visible-near-infrared spectroscopy technique, Meitan Cuiya tea was used as materials in this study. The spectral data of all different grades Cuiya samples were collected. Firstly, Savitzky-Golay smoothing(SG), multiple scattering correction(MSC), standard normal variable transformation (SNV), first derivative, second derivative, detrending and other pretreatment methods were used to process the original spectral data of the samples. Then, the partial least squares regression (PLSR) model was established based on different preprocessing methods and raw data. The influence of different pretreatment methods on the modeling model was also studied. The results showed that the modeling of SG smoothing pretreatment method had the best effect. In order to simplify the model, three characteristic wavelength selection methods, the stepwise regression analysis (SWR), successive projection algorithm (SPA), and competitive adaptive re-weighting (CARS) were used to select the characteristic wavelength, which would be the pretreatment before the SG smoothing. Finally, PLSR modeling was performed based on the characteristic wavelengths selected by different feature wavelength algorithms. The results showed that the model based on the CARS method had the best prediction effect, with the correlation coefficient of 0.9739 and the calibration standard deviation of 0.2250. The model greatly reduced the number of independent variables, simplified the previous model, and achieved a good prediction effect, which provided a new, quick and effective method for the classification of Cuiya grades.
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    Effect of Black Tea on Regulating Serum Lipid in Mice Fed with a High-fat Diet
    CHEN Jinhua, TAN Bin, GONG Yushun, HUANG Jian′an, LIU Zhonghua
    Journal of Tea Science    2015, 35 (4): 384-396.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.04.012
    Abstract113)      PDF(pc) (1872KB)(234)       Save
    :The lipid metabolic disturbance model method was used to investigate the regulatory effects of Black Tea (BT) at different dosages (5 times, 10 times and 20 times of adult daily consumption) on serum lipid levels in hyperlipoidemia mice. In present study, blood lipid levels, body weight, and related enzymes of liver and serum were measured, and the histopathological changes in tissues of liver were also examined. It was found that the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), liver malondialdehyde (MDA) and liver index were significantly lower (P<0.01) in BT-treated mice compared with the high hyperlipoidemia model mice, while serum levels of apoA1, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hepatictriglyceridelipase (HL) and total lipase, and liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) actives and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) actives were significantly higher after treatment with BT (P<0.01). Additionally, serum levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was slightly increased. Moreoverr, body weight was reduced, and the liver lesions were attenuated to some degree in BT-treated mice. The results suggested that BT showed a positive effect on regulating the serum lipid and reducing the liver injury induced by high fat diet.
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    A Case Study of Cadmium Distribution in Soil-Tea Plant-Tea Soup System in Central Fujian Province and Relative Health Risk Assessment
    WANG Feng, SHAN Ruiyang, CHEN Yuzhen, LIN Dongliang, ZANG Chunrong, CHEN Changsong, YOU Zhiming, YU Wenquan
    Journal of Tea Science    2018, 38 (5): 537-546.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.05.011
    Abstract146)      PDF(pc) (829KB)(228)       Save
    Extensive soil and tea tree samples were collected from 8 tea gardens in central Fujian Province to assess the cadmium (Cd) distributions and explore the Cd transportation from tea garden soil, tea leaf to tea soups. Their relations with soil physical and chemical properties were also discussed, and the preliminary health risk assessments of the Cd in tea were conducted using the USEPA health risk assessment model. The results showed that the average total soil Cd content was 112.74βμg·kg-1, which was 2.06 times higher than the background value in Fujian. The average available soil Cd content and available rate were 26.44βμg·kg-1 and 24.86%. The total and available soil Cd contents had significant but negative correlations with soil organic matter and pH value, and the available soil Cd rate was positively and significantly correlated with total and available soil phosphorus. The Cd contents of the main and secondary roots had a positive and significant correlation with the total and available Cd as well as soil organic matter. The Cd content in new leaves had a positive and significant correlation with soil available Cd and total phosphorus. The Cd distribution in tea plant followed the order as: lateral roots (1β253.89βμg·kg-1) > main roots (382.20βμg·kg-1) > main stem (167.25βμg·kg-1) ≈secondary stem (154.65βμg·kg-1) >older leaves (30.60βμg·kg-1) ≈ new leaves (27.13βμg·kg-1). The enrichment coefficients in roots were significantly higher than other tissues, suggesting the preferential accumulation of Cd in tea roots. The average Cd content in tea soup was 192.28βng·L-1, which was far below the sanitary standard for drinking water (GB 5749—2006). The dissolution ratio of Cd was 15.29%. Health risk assessment results of the tea soup and dry tea indicated that Cd of personal total annual risk of approximately 6.33×10-7 and 4.42×10-6, which were one or two order of magnitude lower than the threshold recommended by ICRP (1.0×10-5). Thus, these tea would be safe to drink.
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    Research Advance in Synthesis and Pharmacological Effects of EGCG Derivatives
    LIU Min, RAO Guowu, HUA Yunfen
    Journal of Tea Science    2016, 36 (2): 119-130.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2016.02.002
    Abstract126)      PDF(pc) (800KB)(228)       Save
    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), one of the important catechins in tea, has efficient bioactivity of cell experiment in vitro and animal models in vivo. However, it was not being fully utilized because of the disadvantages of poor liposolubility and stability, as well as low bioavailability, which was resulted from its ‘polyhydroxy’ chemical structure. Excitingly, the molecular modification would be used to improve the physicochemical character of EGCG. This review will summarize the methods on molecular modification of EGCG and investigation of biological activities, which hopes to provide worthful references to the further study of EGCG.
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    Cited: Baidu(1)
    Identification and Expression Analysis of Terpene Synthesis Related Genes during the Withering of White Tea
    CHEN Xuejin, WANG Pengjie, LIN Xinying, GU Mengya, ZHENG Yucheng, ZHENG Zhilin, YE Naixing
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (3): 363-374.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.03.007
    Abstract176)      PDF(pc) (1459KB)(226)       Save
    Terpenes are the important secondary metabolites in plants and play an important role in the composition of the volatile aroma of tea plants. In this study, 141 tea plant terpenoid synthesis-related genes were identified from the tea plant genome database. Their expression specificities in different tissues were analyzed. Sixteen terpene synthetic genes which were highly expressed in the apical buds and young leaves of tea plants were screened. The results of bioinformatics methods show that the phylogenetic relationship divides the genes related to terpene synthesis of tea plant, Arabidopsis and grape into four subfamilies. The terpenoid synthesis related genes contain 5 to 14 exons and a large number of cis-related elements closely related to light response, plant growth and development, hormone and stress response according to the upstream promoter region analysis. Fluorescence quantitative detection showed that the expressions of CsMVK, CsDXS and CsGGPS were significantly up-regulated during the withering process of white tea. The expressions of CsDXR, CsMCT, CsCMK, CsMCS, CsHDS, CsGPPS and CsGGPPS showed the highest expressions at 4 h and 24 h after withering. The results of this study provided a theoretical basis for further exploring the functions of terpenoid synthesis related genes in tea.
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    Research Progress of Tea Aroma Based on CiteSpace Visual Analysis
    YIN Xia, HUANG Jian'an, HUANG Jing, BAO Xiaocun, ZHOU Lingyun, LI Wei, LIU Hongyan, ZHANG Shuguang, LIU Zhonghua
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (2): 143-156.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.02.001
    Abstract333)      PDF(pc) (1249KB)(224)       Save
    In this paper, the literatures collected by WOS (Web of science) and CNKI from 1979-2019 were taken as the research object. CiteSpace's bibliometric method was used to analyze the aroma quality of tea from the aspects of age, author, institution, country, research hotspot, evolution trend, etc. The results show that the literatures of tea aroma research had a significant growth trend since 2006. Currently, a stable core group of authors had been formed but there were little cooperation among these groups. China had the largest research influence in this field, followed by Japan and the United States. The hot research areas mainly focused on the following topics: the mechanism of aroma formation, the extraction and detection methods of aroma substances, and the key aroma compounds. According to the time zone map, the research progress and development stage of tea aroma at present were pointed out.
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    Recent Advance on Anti-cardiovascular Inflammation of Major Characteristic Compounds in Tea
    YAO Min, LI Daxiang, XIE Zhongwen
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (1): 1-14.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.20191202.004
    Abstract360)      PDF(pc) (632KB)(220)       Save
    Chronic inflammation is one of the important causes of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension and myocardial infarction. Inflammatory factors such as IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β can induce many cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis and abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Tea is rich in characteristic compounds. These compounds play preventive and therapeutic roles for cardiovascular diseases by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokines production, and regulating the signal pathways such as NF-κB, MAPK and Tolls-like receptors. In this review, we summarized the recent advance of the main characteristic compounds in tea on preventing inflammation related cardiovascular diseases.
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    Study on Correction Coefficient of a New Anthrone Sulfuric Acid Method for Determination of Polysaccharides in Tea (Camellia sinensis) Flower
    ZHANG Xinghai, XU Jinwei, ZHOU Xiaohong, YU Peili, TU Youying
    Journal of Tea Science    2015, 35 (2): 151-157.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.02.007
    Abstract115)      PDF(pc) (562KB)(215)       Save
    :A method for correction coefficient of anthrone sulfuric acid to detect the polysaccharides in tea flower was established. According to the law of conservation of mass and normal anthrone sulfuric acid method determination of polysaccharide, correction coefficient for a new detection method of anthrone sulfuric acid (f) was constructed through the combined use of ion chromatography technology, which laid the foundation for the tea flower polysaccharide detection technology with fast, accurate and objective charcteristics. The results showed that the correction coefficient were 2.84 and 4.49 when galactose and glucose were used as standard reference substance respectively. The method had good stability (RSDglucose=1.7%, RSDgalactose=1.0%), high precision (RSDglucose=1.4%, RSDgalactose=2.0%), strong repeatability (RSDglucose=3.2%, RSDgalactose=2.5%) and well recovery (recoveryglucose=91.3%-104.1%, recoverygalactose=95.9%-104.4%). Tea flower polysaccharide contents determined by the new method were 10.30%, 10.07% and 9.99% respectively in samples from Anhui, Sichuan and Zhejiang provinces, which were higher than the value determined by conventional anthrone sulfuric acid method. Monosaccharide composition analysis of polysaccharides in tea flower showed that galactose was better to be used as standard reference.
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    Study on Chemistry and Bioactivities of Tea Polysaccharides
    XU Zhong-xi, WANG Kun-bo
    Journal of Tea Science    2004, 24 (2): 75-81.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2004.02.001
    Abstract106)      PDF(pc) (280KB)(213)       Save
    The recent researches have found that tea polysaccharide has many bioactivities, such as anti-thrombosis, reducing blood-sugar, blood-lipid and pressure depressing and strengthening the body's immunity. It can be used in curing diabetes and cardiovascular disorder as healthy foods and subsidiary medicine. The methods of extraction and purification, determination of purity and molecular weight, chemical composition, and bioactivities of tea polysaccharide are summarized.
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    Cited: Baidu(39)
    Effects of Three Amendments on Selenium Availability of Highly Acidic and Se-rich Soil in Tea Garden and their Relative Mechanisms
    XIE Shanni, ZONG Lianggang, ZHANG Qihui, DAI Rongbo, PAN Hanyue, YUAN Qiang
    Journal of Tea Science    2017, 37 (3): 299-307.  
    Abstract88)      PDF(pc) (978KB)(197)       Save
    A series of incubation experiment and field trail were carried out to study the effects and mechanisms of three amendments (straw charcoal, calcium-magnesium phosphate and earthworm liquid fertilizer) and their different applying modes on selenium (Se) availability of highly acidic and Se-rich soil in tea gardens. The results of incubation experiment showed that all treatments increased soil pH and the contents of available Se, but decreased the contents of exchangeable aluminum (Al) significantly. Se was transformed from organic bound form to soluble form, and Al was transformed from exchangeable form to organic complexed form by morphological analysis. The results of field trail showed that different applying modes effectively inhibited further soil acidification, enhanced the availability of Se and increased the Se content in tea leaves simultaneously. A combined application of straw charcoal, calcium-magnesium phosphate and earthworm liquid fertilizer showed the highest effects. The results of this research provide reference to develop Se-enriched tea in acidic and selenium-rich area.
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    Effect of Biochar Addition on Ammonia Volatilization in Acid Tea Garden
    WANG Feng, CHEN Yuzhen, WU Zhidan, JIANG Fuying, ZHANG Wenjin, WENG Boqi, YOU Zhiming
    Journal of Tea Science    2017, 37 (1): 60-70.  
    Abstract67)      PDF(pc) (875KB)(191)       Save
    Ammonia (NH3) volatilization is a major reason for nitrogen loss in tea garden soils. Field experiment was carried out to study the effects of biochar on soil physiochemical properties and ammonia volatilization in acid tea gardens, which would provide scientific support for the appropriate application of biochar. Four treatments were included in the experiment, namely no N fertilizer (CK), N fertilizer (B0N1, 225βkg·hm-2), N fertilizer with 8 t·hm-2 biochar (B1N1) and N fertilizer with 16 t·hm-2 biochar (B2N1). The nitrogen was applied three times, namely top dressing in spring, top dressing in autumn and basal dressing in winter in the ratio of 3︰3︰4. Compared with the B0N1 (N-applying only), biochar treatments (B1N1 and B2N1) significantly increased soil pH and organic carbon content (P<0.05), while decreased soil bulk density (P<0.05). Moreover, the average soil NH4+-N and NO3--N concentrations in biochar treated soils were 5.34%-12.59% lower and 11.02%-36.54% higher than B0N1, indicating the nitrification was promoted. The total NH3-N volatilization losses in acid tea garden varied from 13.01βkg·hm-2 to 40.95βkg·hm-2 and the percentages of the losses relative to total amount of N-application ranged from 7.29 to 12.42%. NH3-N volatilization losses also varied significantly among applying stages, with the highest NH3-N volatilization loss in winter basal dressing. The NH3-N volatilization increased significantly with N application (P<0.05), but NH3-N volatilization in B1N1 and B2N1 were significantly decreased by 26.25% and 28.21% (P<0.05), respectively. In summary, the soil NH4+-N concentrations had a direct correlation with NH3 emission and the reduction of NH3-N volatilization in biochar treatments might be attributed to the decrease of NH4--N concentrations in soils.
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    Research Progress and Prospect on Computer Vision Technology Application in Tea Production
    HUANG Fan, LIU Fei, WANG Yun, LUO Fan
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (1): 81-87.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.01.009
    Abstract188)      PDF(pc) (578KB)(191)       Save
    As a non-destructive, real-time, fast, objective and economical detection method, computer vision technology had been gradually applied in tea production including cultivation, plant protection processing, evaluation and other fields, which had made great progress. This paper briefly described the principle, current status and development prospects of computer vision technology in tea industry, which provided a reference for further application of computer vision technology in tea industry.
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    Effect of Ca2+ on the Chemical Components and Sensory Quality of Extracted Green Tea Infusion
    XU Yong-quan, CHEN Gen-sheng, ZHONG Xiao-yu, WANG Fang, YANG Yu-zhou, YUAN Hai-bo, YIN Jun-feng
    Journal of Tea Science    2011, 31 (3): 230-236.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2011.03.010
    Abstract78)      PDF(pc) (361KB)(190)       Save
    The effect of different Ca2+ concentration(0~100mg/L)on the chemical components and sensory quality of extracted green tea infusion was investigated. The results showed that, with the increasing of Ca2+ concentration, the turbidity of tea infusion increased, pH decreased; the contents of total solids and free amino acids increased, the contents of tea polyphenols and protein decreased, but there was no significant difference in the contents of caffeine and flavones; the contents of EGC increased, the contents of C, EGCG, GCG, ECG and CG decreased, but there was no significant difference in the contents of EC; the contents of Al3+, Cu2+, Na+, Zn2+ decreased, and the contents of K+, Mg2+, Mn2+ increased; tea infusion turned turbid, ripe and sulks odour enhanced, and bitter and astringency strengthened. The effect of Ca2+ on tea infusion quality maybe arisen by participating in tea cream formation, inducing epimerisation of catechins and appearing decomposition reaction.
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    Volatile Components from Cymbopogon citratus and the Activity Research on Their Main Elements Against Three Fungal Pathogens of Tea
    YANG Wen, LIU Huifang, CHEN Yao, SU Sheng, LI Tianxing, LIU Yaoguo, ZHOU Yufeng
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (2): 269-278.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.02.013
    Abstract95)      PDF(pc) (421KB)(186)       Save
    The volatile components from Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf were extracted by solid phase microextraction and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Fifty one volatile components from stems and leaves were identified. Citral [Contains two compounds (E)-citral and (Z)-citral] and geraniol were found to be the major components. Their relative contents in stems were 81.39% (58.48% and 22.91%) and 4.79%, respectively. Meanwhile, the contents in leaves were 78.50% (51.63% and 26.87%) and 3.68%, respectively. The activities of citral and geraniol to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Pestalotiopsis theae and Phoma adianticola were determined using mycelium growth rate method. The preliminarily test results show that the inhibition rate of the two compounds against P. theae were lower than 56% under the tested concentration of 500 mg·L-1 for 96 h. By contrast, they exerted high activities against C. gloeosporioides and P.adianticola with a inhibition rate of 100%. Further evaluated results show that the EC50 of citral to C. gloeosporioides and P.adianticola were (230.56±3.49) mg·L-1 and (124.79±10.29) mg·L-1, respectively. The EC50 of geraniol to the two fungi were (238.38±5.51) mg·L-1 and (115.38±10.96) mg·L-1, respectively. The present study preliminarily revealed the volatile components of C. citratus and the main active fractions against two pathogenic Fungi on tea. The results could provide a theoretical basis for the potential disease prevention of the interplanting of C. citratus and tea.
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    Integrated Nutrient Management in Tea Plantation to Reduce Chemical Fertilizer and Increase Nutrient Use Efficiency
    RUAN Jianyun, MA Lifeng, YI Xiaoyun, SHI Yuanzhi, NI Kang, LIU Meiya, ZHANG Qunfeng
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (1): 85-95.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.20200117.003
    Abstract284)      PDF(pc) (1210KB)(183)       Save
    Tea is an important agricultural industry with great comparative advantage in southern China. However, there are some problems in tea fertilization inducing large nutrient loss, higher production cost and environmental risks. These problems are mainly excessive nutrient input, low proportion of specialized compound fertilizer for tea, low substitution rate of organic nutrients and low efficient application methods such as surface broadcasting. This paper summarized previous results and formulated a technical strategy of integrated nutrient management in tea plantation (INMT) including optimizing nutrient input amounts, properly replacing part of chemical fertilizer with organic fertilizers, choosing right fertilizer products, improving fertilization methods and ameliorating soil properties. Optimization of nutrient input amounts was achieved by controlling whole annual N input on the basis of tea type and yield level, and P and K on their relevant ratio to N and soil test if available. Limits of top input for these nutrients were suggested. Reasonable replacement ratio of organic fertilizer was recommended at 25%-50% of the total N input. A compound fertilizer with specialized formula for tea was developed and tested in more than 70 plantations across the main tea producing areas, efficiently increasing yield and quality while saving nutrient input. Fertilizer application was improved through changing topdressing period and adopting deep and mechanical application.Integrated nutrient management of tea was evaluated in 9 farmers’ and cooperative tea plantations. The average yield was increased by 9% in contrast with 42% reduction of average nutrient input. The tea quality was maintained or improved as indicated by slightly increased contents of amino acids and tea polyphenols.
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    Determination of Glyphosate and Aminomethyl Phosphonic Acid Residue in Green Tea by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
    YANG Yaqin, FENG Shuhui, HU Yongjian, LI Yuanyuan, WANG Huifeng, LIU Jinxi, ZHONG Hongjian
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (1): 125-132.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.20191202.003
    Abstract145)      PDF(pc) (791KB)(175)       Save
    An efficient method for the determination of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) in green tea was developed based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Green tea samples were extracted with water, preliminary purified by dichloromethane and followed by purification with PCX and HLB combined solid phase extraction columns, derived with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) and 2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluoro-1-butanol (HFB), then determined by GC-MS. For glyphosate, the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.05 mg·kg-1, showing good linearity with coefficient R2=0.999 3 in the concentration range from 2-100 ng·mL-1. For AMPA, itsLOQ was 0.02 mg·kg-1, showing good linearity with coefficient R2=0.999 2 in the concentration range from 1-100 ng·mL-1. At the spiked levels of 0.25 mg·kg-1 and 0.50 mg·kg-1, the average recoveries of glyphosate in green tea were 90.8% and 93.2%, with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.93% and 6.74%. At the spiked levels of 0.10 mg·kg-1 and 0.20 mg·kg-1, the average recoveries of AMPA in green tea were 85.8% and 95.4%, with RSD of 10.5% and 5.16%. The proper impurity purification, small impurity interference and high recovery rate made this method suitable for residue detection of glyphosate and its metabolite APMA in green tea.
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    Effects of Different Fertilizer Application Systems on Nitrogen Nutrition in Tea Garden Soil and Yield-Quality of Tea Plant
    ZHU Xujun, WANG Yuhua, ZHANG Yu, XIAO Runlin, LI Xinghui
    Journal of Tea Science    2015, 35 (3): 248-254.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.03.007
    Abstract105)      PDF(pc) (545KB)(173)       Save
    Through field test by setting factors of nitrogen level and organic/chemical fertilizer ratio, we studied the effects of different fertilizer application systems on organic matter and nitrogen nutrition in tea garden soil, as well as tea yield & quality were investigated. The results showed that contents of organic matter and total nitrogen were significantly increased under all various fertilizer treatments, and applying 75% organic manure combined with 25% chemical fertilizers with 900βkg·hm-2 high nitrogen level exhibited the most remarkable increasing effects. Compared with no fertilization treatment, indicators of tea production including the bud-leaf density, 100-bud weight were increased under all various fertilizer treatments. Furthermore, the quality indicators of spring tea were dramatically increased under such fertilizer treatments that organic manure more than 25%, the tea quality improved more while organic manure was more than 50%.
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    Cloning and Expression Analysis of Na+/H+ Antiporter Gene CsNHX1 and CsNHX2 in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)
    CHEN Jiangfei, YU Jinming, YANG Jiankun, YU Youben, XIAO Bin, YANG Yajun, WANG Weidong
    Journal of Tea Science    2018, 38 (6): 559-568.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.06.002
    Abstract110)      PDF(pc) (2562KB)(173)       Save
    The Na+/H+ antiporter (NHX) plays an important role in plant growth, development and stress response. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequences of CsNHX1 and CsNHX2 (GenBank: MG722977 and MG515211) were cloned from tea cultivar ‘Longjingchangye’. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the full-length cDNA of CsNHX1 and CsNHX2 were 1β691βbp and 1β757βbp, all containing a 1β626βbp open reading frame and encoding 541 amino acids. The molecular weights of CsNHX1 and CsNHX2 were 59.5βkD and 59.7βkD and pI were 7.07 and 8.79, respectively.The results of protein sequence analysis showed that CsNHX1 and CsNHX2 contained the conserved Na+/H+ exchange domain, and belong to the typical transmembrane proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of plant NHX revealed that CsNHX1 and CsNHX2 are the member of Class I that localized to the vacuolar membrane in IC subfamily. In addition, qRT-PCR results showed that the expressions of CsNHX1 and CsNHX2 were induced by drought, low-temperature and salt stress. In contrast, exogenous ABA could not induce the expressions of CsNHX1 and CsNHX2. In addition, the expression level of CsNHX1 in tea plant decreased significantly, but that of CsNHX2 increased gradually under heat stress, indicating that CsNHX1 and CsNHX2 were differently involved in tea plant responding to environmental stress, and possibly through different responding modes.
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    Production of Bioactive Indole Alkaloids through Fermention of Eurotium cristatum from Fuzhuan Tea
    LIU Liping, TANG Yuwei, WANG Ruoxian, LI Zhibing, LIU Zhonghua, LIU Shuoqian
    Journal of Tea Science    2017, 37 (5): 503-512.  
    Abstract122)      PDF(pc) (1287KB)(171)       Save
    Eurotium cristatum is the dominant fungi in Funzhuan tea, which produces indole alkaloids that have many important bioactivities, such as antibacterial, antiallergic, antiradiation, antiultraviolet, antitumor effects. In order to improve the production of indole alkaloids by E. cristatum, we investigated the factors affecting reproduction, growth and the fermentation of E. cristatum. The fermentation products of E. cristatum were analyzed using thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrum. The results showed that E. cristatum reproduced fast on Czapek-Dox solid medium with a large number of mature spores in 8 days, and the optimal growth conditions were obtained as following: pH 6.0, culture temperature 30℃, rotating speed 200 r·min-1 and culture time 6 days. Moreover, fresh tea leaf powder, fresh tea leaf extract, Funzhuan tea powder, Funzhuan tea extract and tryptophan obviously improved the biosynthesis of indole alkaloids, with the best enhancing effect of tryptophan. Furthermore, at least 10 compounds were observed in thin-layer chromatography, most of which were identified to be indole alkaloids by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrum, with a yield up to 2.45 g·L-1. The present work provided technical support for utilization of E. cristatum in Fuzhuan tea.
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    Advances in Fluorine Absorption and Accumulation Mechanisms in Tea Plant
    HUANG Xin, SONG Xiaowei, CHEN Yuqiong
    Journal of Tea Science    2016, 36 (6): 551-556.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2016.06.001
    Abstract108)      PDF(pc) (605KB)(160)       Save
    Tea plant with strong ability to accumulate fluorine could tolerate several times higher external fluorine content than other plants. In this paper, the features of fluoride absorption and accumulation, their relative mechanisms and the physical effects of fluoride on tea plant were summarized. Future research directions of fluorine absorption and accumulation in tea plant were also discussed.
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    Effects of Catechins on Acute Hyperuricemia in Mice
    JIN Hongna, SONG Yewei, CUI Weibo, XIE Hong
    Journal of Tea Science    2016, 36 (4): 347-353.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2016.04.002
    Abstract113)      PDF(pc) (776KB)(158)       Save
    The mouse model of acute hyperuricemia was established by using 300 mg·kg-1 oxonic acid potassium salt to evaluate the influence of catechins on serum uric acid. The xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity in serum and liver and the inhibitory effect of catechins on XOD in vitro was further studied. Results showed that with dosage of 600 mg·kg-1, EC, ECG and EGC reduced the serum uric acid level in vivo significantly by 23% (P<0.001), 35% (P<0.001) and 37% (P<0.001), respectively compared with the model group. ECG could reduce XOD activity in serum and liver approximately by 31% (P<0.01) and 32% (P<0.05). In vitro, ECG and EGCG could inhibit XOD activity. Therefore EC, ECG and EGC could reduce the level of uric acid of hyperuricemia mice. The mechanism of uric acid lowering effect of ECG might be associated with its inhibitory effect on XOD.
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    Identification and Expression Analysis of Tea Plant (Camellia sinesis) miR164a and Its Target Gene
    KONG Lei, ZHU Xiangxiang, WANG Yiwei, XIE Xiaofang, JIANG Changjun, LI Yeyun
    Journal of Tea Science    2018, 38 (6): 547-558.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.06.001
    Abstract118)      PDF(pc) (2159KB)(158)       Save
    Plant miR164 is involved in complex physiological processes such as plant growth and development regulation and stress responses by negatively regulating the target gene NAC transcription factors. The identification, cloning and sequence analysis of miR164a and its target gene NAC1 in tea plant were carried out by high-throughput sequencing of microRNA and degradome analysis. The expression patterns of Csn-miR164a and its target gene CsNAC1 during leaf development and under high or low temperature stresses were also studied. The length of Csn-miR164a precursor is 126βbp, and the mature sequence is 21βbp. The CsNAC1 ORF is 912βbp, encoding 303 amino acids. There are a typical NAM domain at the N terminus of CsNAC1 protein and a Csn-miR164a recognition site at the C-terminus. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of Csn-miR164a was the highest in the bud and the lowest in the seventh leaves. Under high and low temperature treatments, the expression of Csn-miR164a was down regulated, while the expression level of CsNAC1 increased. The expression of Csn-miR164a was negatively correlatied with the expression of the target gene CsNAC1. The results revealed that Csn-miR164a and its target gene CsNAC1 might be closely related to the growth and stress responses in tea plant.
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    A Review on the Regulation Technique of Withering Process and the Change in Physical and Chemical Properties of Leaves
    HUA Jin-jie, YUAN Hai-bo, JIANG Yong-wen, LIU Ping, WANG Wei-wei
    Journal of Tea Science    2013, 33 (5): 465-472.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2013.05.005
    Abstract100)      PDF(pc) (569KB)(158)       Save
    The withering is an important process of fermented tea, such as black tea and oolong tea, significantly affected the sensory quality of tea. With water constantly lost in the withering process, the respiration of fresh leaf is carrying on continuously, the endoplasmic components are also dramatically changed and the physical characteristics of withering leaves are also prompted to change. All of these provided specific substances and leaves basis for the follow-up processes and the quality of finished tea. This paper illustrates the dynamic variation of the physical properties and biochemical components in the withering process, and conducted a systemic review on the regulation and control technology on the key parameters of current withering. The facility withering technology, which can accurately control these parameters including environment conditions, such as temperature, humidity, light conditions and aeration conditions, will become the important direction of withering development in the future.
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    Cited: Baidu(15)
    Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Fujian Tea Varieties by SCoT Markers
    LIN Weidong, CHEN Zhidan, SUN Weijiang, YANG Ruxing
    Journal of Tea Science    2018, 38 (1): 43-57.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.01.005
    Abstract103)      PDF(pc) (1363KB)(157)       Save
    SCoT-PCR amplification system is constructed to analyze the tea resources in Fujian. Totally 16 polymorphic primers were screened from 38 SCoT primers to construct fingerprints of 55 tea cultivars (lines). A total of 219 bands were amplified from 55 materials, with 216 polymorphic bands. The average bands amplified by each primer and polymorphic ratio were 13.8 and 93.15%. The Genetic similarity (GS) of 55 tea resources ranged from 0.49 to 0.85, with an average of 0.67. The SCoT marker analysis showed that the observed number of alleles was 1.93 in these two tea groups. The effective number of alleles, Nei gene diversity, Shannon’s information index, genetic differentiation and the gene flow were 1.54, 0.32, 0.48, 0.067 and 7.01, respectively. When the genetic similarity coefficient was set to 0.64, the tea resources could be divided into two major categories.
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    Advance in Research and Application of Sex Pheromone of Tea (Camellia sinensis) Pest
    LUO Zongxiu, CAI Xiaoming, BIAN Lei, LI Zhaoqun, CHEN Zongmao
    Journal of Tea Science    2016, 36 (3): 229-236.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2016.03.001
    Abstract106)      PDF(pc) (738KB)(157)       Save
    Tea is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. However, long-term dependence on chemical pesticide to control diseases and pests caused pesticide residue problem which seriously affects human health. In the meanwhile, pesticide abuse also creates pest resistance and environment pollution. As one of most important discovery in chemical ecology in 1960’s, sex pheromone has attracted scientists for its high efficiency, pro-environment, specificity characteristics. In the past studies, the sex pheromone of several tea pests had been identified and applied, For instance, the application of small tea tortrix sex pheromone has become a paragon. In this paper, we review and discuss the research advance about the identification of tea pest sex pheromone, functions of minor components, chirality, polymorphism, resistance, synthesis pathway, regulatory mechanism and other ecological functions of sex pheromone.
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    The Evaluation of the Stability of EGCG-Selenium Nanoparticles and Its Effect on Selenium Absorption and Utilization
    WANG Le, LI Huan, LI Jiahao, CHEN Xuan, LI Xinghui, SUN Kang
    Journal of Tea Science    2017, 37 (4): 373-382.  
    Abstract109)      PDF(pc) (1893KB)(157)    PDF(mobile) (1893KB)(1)    Save
    (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) dispersed Selenium nanoparticles (EGCG-SeNPs) were prepared using vitamin C (Vc) and EGCG as the redox agent and dispersant. Characteristics of EGCG-SeNPs, which were determined using transmission electron microscope (TEM) and zetasizer, were spherical in shape with a mean diameter of (35±0.12)βnm and -0.05βmV zeta potential. The particles were aggregated in strong acid and high temperature conditions (pH1.0 and 70℃), with the particle size increased by about 10 times. And, EGCG in EGCG-SeNPs had good stability as a dispersant. With the administration of 25, 50 and 100βμg·kg-1 (Calculated with selenium content), selenium content in liver and kidney of 50 and 100βμg·kg-1 sodium selenite and EGCG-SeNPs treated mice were significantly increased. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in serum, liver and kidney of all the treatment groups were significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. However, there was no significant difference between sodium selenite and EGCG-SeNPs at the same dose on selenium content and GPx activity. Hence, it can be concluded that EGCG-SeNPs synthesized using Vc as the redox agent might have the similar bioavailability to sodium selenite.
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    Determination of Pesticide Residue in Fresh Tea Leaves and Dry Tea by Solid Extraction and Dispersive Solid Extraction Cleanup Coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrum
    YANG Jie, ZHOU Li, YU Huan, SUN Hezhi, WANG Xinru, ZHANG Xinzhong, YANG Mei, CHEN Zongmao, LUO Fengjian
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (3): 397-406.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.03.010
    Abstract100)      PDF(pc) (426KB)(154)       Save
    A method for the determination of 9 pesticide residues in fresh and dry tea was established. Residual pesticides in samples were extracted by acetonitrile, purified by Florisil/GCB solid phase extraction column, followed by absorbent of PSA and GCB as dispersed solid phase, and determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the spiked range of 0.005-1.000 mg·kg-1, the average recoveries of target pesticides in fresh leaves and dried tea were 70.3%-103.9%, and the relative standard deviations (RSD) were less than 20%. In the range of 0.005-2.000 mg·kg-1, the linear relationship of target pesticides in fresh leaves and dry tea matrix was good, with r>0.995 4. The limit of quantity (LOQ) was 0.005 mg·kg-1. The test results of actual samples showed that the method was highly sensitive and reproducible, and can meet the requirements of multi-residue detection.
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    Molecular Cloning, Subcellular Localization and Expression Analysis of CsPT4 Gene in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)
    XIN Huahong, WANG Weidong, WANG Mingle, MA Qingping, GAN Yudi, LI Xinghui
    Journal of Tea Science    2017, 37 (5): 493-502.  
    Abstract110)      PDF(pc) (1542KB)(150)       Save
    Phosphate transporter proteins (Phts) play important roles in plant phosphorus (P) absorption and transportation. Furthermore, Phts affect usage efficiency of the tea garden fertilizer. A full-length phosphate transporter complementary DNA (cDNA) CsPht1:4 (also named CsPT4) was cloned from tea plant (Camellia sinensis cv. Longjingchangye) by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques. CsPT4 had an open reading frame of 1β620βbp (GenBank accession No. KY132100) and encoded a 539 amino acid polypeptide. Bioinformatic analyses showed that CsPT4 had a molecular weight of 59.12βkD and a theoretical isoelectric point of 8.51. The protein secondary structure was a “6+Hydrophilic+6” configuration,which was consistent with the typical structure of Phts. Subcellular localization assay showed that the CsPT4 protein localized in plasma membrane, which was consistent with the predicted results of Softberry. The expression pattern of CsPT4 gene was tissue-specific. Its transcript abundance in old leaves was much higher than that in tender leaves, stems and roots. The lowest expression of CsPT4 gene was identified in roots. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the gene expression trends in root and leaves were different under low-P and P-deficiency treatments. Under low-P treatment, its induced level was first increased and then decreased, with higher expression in roots than leaves. While under P-deficiency treatment, the induced expression of CsPT4 gene kept stable, with its peak in roots and leaves at 72 h and 48 h, respectively. The results of this study provided a reference for the study of the molecular mechanism of tea adaptation to low P.
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    Comparative Study of the Aroma Components of Several Oolong Teas
    JI Weibin, LIU Panpan, XU Yongquan, JIANG Yongwen, CHEN Jianxin, YIN Junfeng
    Journal of Tea Science    2016, 36 (5): 523-530.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2016.05.011
    Abstract128)      PDF(pc) (900KB)(148)       Save
    Oolong teas are mainly produced in the south and north of Fujian, Guangdong and Taiwan, and they have unique aroma qualities in different producing districts. The sensory evaluation and HS-SPME/GC-MS were applied to analyze the aroma qualities and aroma components of typical Oolong teas from the four producing districts in this study. The results showed that, the main aroma components include alcohol, ketone, aldehyde, ester, hydrocarbon, phenols and nitrogenous compounds. However, the aroma components of the Oolong teas from different districts showed large differences. Trans-nerolidol (40.96%) and α-farnesene (20.00%) were found as the major aroma components of high-mountain Oolong tea from Taiwan. While trans-nerolidol (46.22%), indole (15.20%) and α-farnesene (23.01%) were found as the major aroma components of fresh scent-flavor Tieguanyin from south of Fujian province. Linalool and its oxidates (11.87%), ionones (5.26%) and 3-hexenyl ester, (z)-hexanoic acid (5.05%) were the major aroma components of Shuixian from north of Fujian province, and trans-nerolidol (31.43%) and indole (35.83%) were found as the major aroma components of Wuye dancong from Guangdong province. The aroma
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    Cited: Baidu(2)
    Advances in Aluminum Accumulation and Tolerance Mechanisms in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)
    HUANG Danjuan, MAO Yingxin, CHEN Xun, TAN Rongrong, WANG Hongjuan, WANG Youping, GONG Ziming
    Journal of Tea Science    2018, 38 (2): 125-132.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.02.002
    Abstract136)      PDF(pc) (663KB)(147)       Save
    Tea plant is an aluminum (Al) hyper-accumulator with higher Al content than other plants, but no obvious damage symptoms. In this paper, aspects including the Al absorption, transportation, content and distribution characteristics in tea plant are reviewed. Furthermore, the influence of Al on the growth and development, the Al tolerance mechanism of tea plant are summarized. Meanwhile, future studies on aluminum tolerance mechanisms of tea plant are also briefly discussed.
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    Extraction of Tea-polyphenols from Tea Leaves by Ultrahigh Pressure Technique
    ZHANG Ge, ZHANG Ling-ling, WU Hua, ZHANG Shou-qin
    Journal of Tea Science    2006, 26 (4): 291-294.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2006.04.011
    Abstract121)      PDF(pc) (326KB)(146)       Save
    The extactrion of tea-polyphenols from tea leaves by using the ultrahigh pressure extraction technology (UPE) was studied. The experiment was designed with orthogonal method, and the yield of tea-polyphenols is used as the testing index. The extract conditions, including of the solvent concentration, pressure, the holding time of pressure and the soaking time before extraction, were investigated. The optimum extraction conditions are as follow, 60% ethanol, 200βMPa holding 3βmin., soaking 0.5 hr. The yield of tea-polyphenols is 28.92% under the optimum extraction condition. After separation, the yield of crude product of tea extraction is higher 25.3% than that of heat reflux method and the total of tea-polyphenols is higher 32% than that of heat reflux method. In addition, the extraction liquid of UPE is clear, easily to filter and no turbid after stored a long time. As a new extraction technology, UPE showed the great economic benefit if applied to extract tea-ployphenols from tea leaves in industrial scale.
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    Cited: Baidu(35)
    Effects of Tea Catechins on Lead-induced Lipid Peroxidation Damage in HepG2 Cells and Tea Polyphenol on the Content of Lead in Lead-exposed Mice
    PIAO Zai-ri, Wang Yue-fei, YANG Xian-qiang, CHEN Liu-ji, YANG Yong, ZHAO Bao-lu, JIAO Hong-li, ZHOU Dang-yi
    Journal of Tea Science    2003, 23 (2): 119-123.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2003.02.007
    Abstract77)      PDF(pc) (304KB)(146)       Save
    The effects of tea catechins on lead-induced lipid peroxidation damage in HepG2 cells and tea polyhenol on the content of lead in lead-exposed mice were investigated.HepG2 cell viability was determined using the MTT method,lipid peroxidation was assayed by detetmining the production rate of thibarbiturie acid reactive substance(TBARS)which was expressed as malondialdehyde(MDA)equivalents.The content of lead in lead-exposed mice was determined using hydride atomic fluorescence spectroscopic method. Results showed that tea catechins had protective effects on lead-exposed HepG2 cell viability and inhibitory effects on TBARS formation in HepG2 cells.All the indices of the mice in the exposed groups were significantly higher than those in the control.Tea polyphenol was able to accelerate the removal of lead from liver,but the same effects were not found in blood、kidney, brain and thigbones.
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    Cited: Baidu(8)
    Study on the Gallic Acid in Pu-erh Tea
    LU Hai-peng, LIN Zhi, GU Ji-ping, GUO Li, TAN Jun-feng
    Journal of Tea Science    2007, 27 (2): 104-110.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2007.02.002
    Abstract108)      PDF(pc) (484KB)(145)       Save
    Gallic acid is a characteristic phenolic compound in Pu-erh tea with notable bioactivity. The content of gallic acid in Pu-erh tea, the change of gallic acid during the pile-fermentation, and the relation between extract fraction bioactivity and its gallic acid content were studied. Results showed that the average content of gallic acid in Pu-erh tea was 9.01βmg/g, but striking dissimilarity existed between the different samples; The gallic acid content first increased to some extent then decreased during the pile-fermentation of the solar green tea of [Camellia sinensis (Linn.) var. assamica (Masters) Kitamura]. It was found that the extracted fractions which rich in gallic acid showed higher antioxidative activities by DPPH radical scavenging assay.
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    Cited: Baidu(25)
    Physiological and Molecular Mechanisms of Transmembrane Fluoride Uptake by Tea Roots
    XU Jiajia, GUANG Min, SHI Shulin, GAO Hongjian
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (4): 365-371.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.04.001
    Abstract213)      PDF(pc) (313KB)(145)       Save
    Tea plant is a fluoride hyper-accumulator and most of fluoride is accumulated in the leaves. Drinking tea is an important way to absorb fluoride for human, which affects human health. Fluoride is usually absorbed from the soil by tea roots. However, the physiological and molecular mechanisms of transmembrane fluoride uptake by the tea roots were still poorly documented. Therefore, this paper reviewed the active and passive pathways of fluoride uptake by the roots of tea. The active transmembrane uptake fluoride process and molecular mechanism by H+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase, the role and microscopic process of ion channel and Al-F complexation by passive fluoride uptake were analyzed. The main influencing factors and control measures of fluoride accumulation in tea roots were also investigated. In order to reveal the molecular mechanism of transmembrane fluoride uptake, regulate the selective fluoride uptake in tea roots, and ensure the tea quality and safety for consumption, cloning, expression, and functional verification of transport proteins and genes related to fluoride transmembrane uptake in tea plant should receive more attention in future studies.
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    Effects of Fu Brick Tea and Its Formula on the Content of TG in L-02 Steatotic Hepatocytes
    XU Xiao-jiang, HUANG Jian-an, XIAO Li-zheng, YUAN Yong, XIAO Wen-jun
    Journal of Tea Science    2011, 31 (3): 247-254.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2011.03.011
    Abstract86)      PDF(pc) (427KB)(144)       Save
    Using 1mL/L of 20% medical fat emulsion to process L-02 liver cells for 48h in order to replicate non-alcoholic fatty degeneration of liver cells, and then adding different concentrations of extracts and its formulas to process separately for 24h and 48h, automatic biochemical analyzer detects the level of triglycerides (TG) in liver cells, investigate the effects of Fu Brick Tea extraction and the two formulas on the content of TG in L-02 Steatotic Hepatocytes. Results showed that Fu brick tea extraction and formula 1 can significantly lower TG levels in fatty liver cells(P<0.05), while comparing with the Xue Zhi Kang group, those two groups presented no significant difference (P>0.05). Accordingly, Fu brick tea and formula 1 reflect a wide prospect of development and application.
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    Cited: Baidu(8)
    An Empirical Analysis of the Trade and Influencing Factors of China's Black Tea Export to Countries along the Belt and Road
    XU Yongmei, SHI Yunfeng
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (5): 602-610.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.05.012
    Abstract422)      PDF(pc) (328KB)(142)       Save
    China is the origin of tea and the first black tea export country in the world. Tea, particularly black tea was one of the most important trade commodities on the Chinese ancient Silk Road. Here, the trade profile of China's black tea export to countries along the belt was first described and the main factors affecting the black tea export was analyzed. The expanded trade gravity model was applied to analyze the influencing factors of China's black tea export to countries along the belt. Empirical analysis shows that the average export price of Chinese black tea, the growth of the distance between China and the importing countries of black tea, and the exchange rate of RMB were significantly but negatively correlated with Chinese black tea export. The population growth of the importing countries and the GDP growth of China and the importing countries had a significant and positive impact on China's black tea export.
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    Study on the Changes of Physical and Chemical Components during the Frying Process of Green Tea by Computer Vision
    WU Xun, LIU Fei, CHEN Zhiwei, WANG Yuwan, CHEN Lin, TU Zheng, ZHOU Xiaofen, YANG Yunfei, YE Yang, TONG Huarong
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (2): 194-204.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.02.006
    Abstract150)      PDF(pc) (965KB)(142)       Save
    In order to find out the physical and chemical changes during the frying process of green tea, the computer vision technology was applied to real-time monitor the changes of color and shape, and chemical changes were simultaneously measured. The results show that with the increase of frying time, (1) the radius of curvature of unfinished tea gradually decreased, which showed the highest decreasing rate from 10-30 min. R, G, B and average gray value decreased first and then rose. The consistency value was opposite to their trends, with the extreme value in 20 min. H value increased significantly, S value decreased significantly. (2) Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin (EGC), chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids decreased significantly, while gallocatechin gallate (GCG) increased significantly. Experimental results show that the radius of curvature was highly correlated with water content and leaf temperature. H was significantly correlated with chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b. S was significantly correlated with chlorophyll a, carotenoids and epicatechin gallate (ECG). The linear fit of EGCG and H values showed the highest value at 0.922 1. In the future, water content, leaf temperature and H value could be monitored online to predict changes of the radius of curvature and chemical composition during frying.
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    Journal of Tea Science    2002, 22 (01): 1-6.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2002.01.001
    Abstract84)      PDF(pc) (57KB)(142)       Save
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    Screening of the Beauveria bassiana Strain with High Virulence to Basilepta melanopus (Coleoptera: Chrysomeloidea)
    WANG Dingfeng, LI Liangde, LI Jianlong, LI Huiling, ZHANG Hui, WANG Qingsen, WU Guangyuan
    Journal of Tea Science    2017, 37 (3): 229-236.  
    Abstract116)      PDF(pc) (280KB)(142)       Save
    The beetle (Basilepta melanopus) is one of the most serious leaf-feeding insects in tea garden, which seriously affects both tea yield and quality. In recent years, the beetle often caused serious damage in some tea gardens, especially organic tea gardens. How to effectively control this pest has become a serious problem. In order to screen high virulence strains of Beauveria bassiana to B. melanopus, 9 strains of B. bassiana isolated from the coleoptera pests in tea gardens were selected as candidates. In the preliminary screening, the biological characteristics of these 9 strains, including colony morphology, growth rate, sporulation, spore germination rate, thermotolerance and UV radiation resistance were detected. According to the above biological characteristics, three strains Bb338, Bb346 and Bb2-1 were selected for further bioassay against the adult of B. melanopus. Bioassay results showed that the strain Bb2-1 was the most virulent strain to the adults of B. melanopus, which had the highest corrected mortality rates of 100%, highest cadaver rates of 86.11% and shortest LT50 of 3.32 d at a concentration of 1.0×107 conidia per milliliter. The strain Bb2-1 has the best biological characteristics and the highest virulent against the adults of B. melanopus, which would play a very important role in biocontrol of B. melanopus.
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    Effects of Theabrownin Extracted from Pu-erh Tea on the Intestinal Flora
    YUE Suijuan, LIU Jian, GONG Jiashun
    Journal of Tea Science    2016, 36 (3): 261-267.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2016.03.005
    Abstract176)      PDF(pc) (708KB)(141)       Save
    In this study, theabrownin (Mw>50 kDa, TB) extracted from pu-erh tea was used as experimental material, and the effects of theabrownin to the intestinal flora of rat was studied. The results showed that the theabrownin had remarkable effects on the intestinal flora in rats. TB could significantly improve the de-pollution of antibiotics and adjust the intestinal flora imbalance. It was found that TB could promote the proliferation of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus and inhibit the proliferation of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus. The effects are more obvious with increasing culture time. In turn, microbes proliferate can accelerate the catabolism of theabrowns.
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    Cited: Baidu(2)
    Journal of Tea Science    2002, 22 (01): 7-13+29.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2002.01.002
    Abstract72)      PDF(pc) (66KB)(139)       Save
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    Study on the Characteristic Aroma Components of Jasmine Tea
    AN Huimin, OU Xingchang, XIONG Yifan, ZHANG Yangbo, LI Juan, LI Qin, LI Qian, LI Shi, HUANG Jian'an
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (2): 225-237.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.02.009
    Abstract187)      PDF(pc) (521KB)(139)       Save
    Jasmine tea is unique to China reprocessing tea. The aroma is the most important factor for its quality. In this study, a Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gaschromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of volatile components in green tea and jasmine tea. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (Orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis, OPLS-DA) and aroma activity value method (Odor activity value, OAV) were used to identify characteristic aroma of jasmine tea ingredients, and explore their effects on tea quality. The results show that: 70 kinds of volatile components were identified in green tea and jasmine tea. Totally 13 characteristic aroma components were identified in jasmine tea, namely 3-hexene-1-ol, benzyl alcohol, linalool, phenylethyl alcohol, leaf alcohol esters of acetic acid, methyl benzoate, benzyl acetate, methyl salicylate, cis-3-hexenyl isovalerate, methyl 2-aminobenzoate, cis-3-hexenyl benzene formate, indole and α-farnesene. These characteristic aroma components were closely correlated with the jasmine tea quality, except phenylethanol. The results of this study provided a theoretical basis for the evaluation, regulation and promotion of Jasmine tea quality.
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    Effects of ‘Eurotium cristatum Loose Tea’ and ‘Eurotium cristatum Powder’ on the Expressions of JAK2/STAT3 Inflammation and Phosphorylated Proteins in Lung Tissue of Passive Smoking Mice
    ZENG Hongzhe, HUANG Xiangxiang, YU Lijun, ZHOU Yufei, XU Shuai, QU Furong
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (2): 165-172.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.02.003
    Abstract173)      PDF(pc) (1655KB)(138)       Save
    In order to investigate the prevention and recovery mechanism of ‘Eurotium cristatum Loose Tea’ and its ‘Eurotium cristatum powder’ on mouse lung tissues which were injured by passive smoking, passive cigarette smoking environment (CSE) model on SPF C57BL/6 female mice were established. Mice were fed by 600 mg∙kg-1 Eurotium cristatum tea extract (ECTE) and Eurotium cristatum powder extract (ECPE). Comparing with the CSE model mice, the morphology integrity of lung tissue in passive smoking mice feeding with ECPE and ECTE were significantly protected by observing the pathological slice of lung tissue. The up-regulation levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, IFN-γ and TNF-α in the serum of mice were inhibited by ELISA analysis. Western blot results show that the expression levels of p-JAK2, p-STAT3, p-JAK2/JAK2, p-STAT3/STAT3 in lung tissues of passive smoking mice fed with ECPE and ECTE were inhibited. These results reveal the prominent protective roles of ECPE and ECTE in the lung injury of passive smoking mice. As a whole, ECPE feeding groups were superior to ECTE feeding groups, while prevention groups were better than treatment groups.
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    Nonlinear Manifold Dimensionality Reduction Methods for Quick Discrimination of Tea at Different Altitude by Near Infrared Spectroscopy
    LIU Peng, AI Shirong, YANG Puxiang, LI Wenjin, XIONG Aihua, TONG Yang, HU Xiao, WU Ruimei
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (6): 715-722.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.06.010
    Abstract107)      PDF(pc) (445KB)(137)       Save
    In order to improve the accuracy of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy identification methods for tea at different altitude, the non-linear manifold dimensionality reduction methods of locally linear embedding (LLE) and laplacian eigenmaps (LE) were used to reduce the dimension of NIR spectral data, and compared with non-linear (KPCA) and linear (PCA) dimensional reduction methods. Discrimination models were established for tea at different altitude based on different dimensional reduction methods and least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) algorithm. Visualization of different dimensionality reduction results show that data processed by KPCA and PCA methods were more discrete. In particular, there were more overlaps between 400-800 m and 800-1 200 m samples. However, the same kind of sample points could be gathered well in three-dimensional space by the nonlinear manifold dimensionality reduction methods can. Tea at different altitude could be easily separated and the aggregation effect of the LE was better than that of the LLE. The results of models indicate the LE_LSSVM model had the best performance, with the prediction set accuracy and Kappa value of 100% and 1.00 respectively. Compared with PCA_LSSVM, KPCA_LSSVM and LLE_LSSVM models, the accuracy of prediction set was improved by 1.7%, 1.7%, 3.3% and Kappa values increased by 0.025, 0.03, and 0.05. The results show that LE and other nonlinear manifold dimensionality reduction methods were effective in reducing dimension of near infrared spectral data, simplifying model complexity, and improving model precision. The study provides a new means for rapid detecting for tea quality research.
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    Advances in Research on the Regulation of Tea Polyphenols and Effects on Intestinal Flora
    ZHOU Fang, OUYANG Jian, HUANG Jian'an, LIU Zhonghua
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (6): 619-630.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.06.001
    Abstract210)      PDF(pc) (604KB)(137)       Save
    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is an abnormal multi-metabolic disease that comprises a combination of various diseases such as hypertension, abnormal blood sugar, dyslipidemia and obesity. Tea polyphenols (TPs) are the characteristics secondary metabolites in tea leaves. The latest studies show that TPs can improve the disorder of gut flora (GF) and modulate the co-metabolism of Host-GF by the intervention & treatment to achieve the goal of improving MS. This paper systematically summarized the absorption and metabolism of TPs and the effects of TPs on GF in in vitro fermentation models, animal experiments, and clinical trials. The underlying mechanism among TPs-GF-Host was described, which would facilitate further exploring the effects of TPs on human health based on the theory of intestinal flora and developing functional products of TPs. In addition, it also provided theoretical foundation for developing functional products associating with TPs.
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    Dynamics of Scent Type and Aroma Components of Wuyi Dahongpao during the Preliminary Processing
    WANG Fang, ZHANG Jianming, LI Bo, CHEN Baiwen, LIU Baoshun, ZHAN Shiquan, LIU Shizhang
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (4): 455-463.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.04.011
    Abstract216)      PDF(pc) (458KB)(137)       Save
    The aroma components of tea leaves of Wuyi Dahongpao during the preliminary processing were investigated by headspace solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results show that compared to the fresh leaves, the aroma component contents of alkanes, aldehydes and ketones such as nonaldehyde, tetradecane, tridecane, dodecane, butyl-2-ethyl-1,2,3-propyltriester, di-tert-dodecyl disulfide and orange blossom tert acetate were decreased drastically during the preliminary processing, which were decreased by 72.4%, 91.8% and 63.6% in the raw made tea, respectively. The alcohol, ester and olefin aroma components such as nerolidol, alpha olefin, indole, phenylacetonitrile, phenylethyl alcohol, caproic acid ester, hexanoic acid-shun 3-hexene ester, hexanoic acid-2-hexene ester and benzoic acid ester, acid-3-hexene-1-ester, and benzoic acid 2-hexene ester were largely increased during the preliminary process. The alcohol, ester and olefin aroma components involved in the characteristic flavor of Dahongpao were increased by 215.5%, 70.8% and 682.6% in the raw made tea respectively.
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    tudy of Pu′er Raw Materials Grade Classification by PCA and PLS-DA
    LIU Binqiu, CHEN Xiaoquan, WU Xiaogang, ZHANG Wei, WANG Zihao
    Journal of Tea Science    2015, 35 (2): 179-184.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.02.011
    Abstract178)      PDF(pc) (910KB)(137)       Save
    Two classification methods for Pu′er raw materials were explored using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and the important physical and chemical compositions were identified through the statistical analysis. The results revealed that both PCA and PLS-DA could directly classify the grades of Pu′er raw materials, particularly for the grade 3, but not for that of grade 6 and 9. The PCA loadings plot and PLS-DA variable important for the projection plot indicated that the contents of amino acids were the important physical and chemical components for classification. Lysine (Lys), proline (Pro) and phenylalanine (Phe) were three most important physical and chemical compositions.
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    Effects of Black Tea and Its Flower Brick Tea on Lowering Uric Acid in Hyperuricemic Mice
    YUAN Dongyin, XIAO Wenjun, PENG Yingqi, LIN Ling, ZHOU Yang, TAN Chunbo, TAN Hongbo, GONG Zhihua
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (1): 34-42.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.01.004
    Abstract148)      PDF(pc) (724KB)(137)       Save
    Based on the successful establishment of hyperuricemia model mice by potassium oxonate, black tea and its flower black brick tea made from the same fresh leaves were used to investigate their effects on lowering uric acid in hyperuricemic mice. In the study, ninety KM male mice were randomly divided into nine groups (10 mices for each group) including the normal group, the model group, the black tea-treated groups (high dose, middle dose, low dose) and the allopurinol group. Then all mice were orally administrated for fourteen days. The results showed that compared with the model group, the levels of weight , kidney index and serum uric acid in tea-treated groups were significantly decreased (P<0.05). Moreover, the high-dose group of flower black brick tea had extremely significant reduction in blood uric acid (P<0.01). Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine also decreased significantly in tea-treated groups (P<0.01). The levels of urine urea nitrogen in the middle and high dose groups increased significantly (P<0.01), and the levels of urine uric acid in the high dose groups increased significantly (P<0.01). The levels of urine creatinine were significantly increased in the tea-treated groups (P<0.01) except the low-dose black tea group which showed an opposite trend (P<0.05). The middle dose group of flower black brick tea significantly decreased the activities of xanthine oxidase and adenosine deaminase (P<0.05). The middle dose group of black tea and both high dose groups all highly significantly reduced the activities of these two enzymes (P<0.01). These results showed that black tea and flower black brick tea could reduce the production of uric acid, and the high-dose flower black brick tea group was superior to black tea in lowering blood uric acid and increasing uric acid, urine urea nitrogen, and urine creatinine. The mechanism remains to be further explored.
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    Rewiew on Taste Characteristic of Catechins and Its Sensory Analysis Method
    ZHANG Yingna, JI Weibin, XU Yongquan, YIN Junfeng
    Journal of Tea Science    2017, 37 (1): 1-9.  
    Abstract98)      PDF(pc) (736KB)(135)       Save
    Taste is the most important quality characteristics of tea infusion. Green tea taste is formed by the interaction of polyphenols, caffeine, amino acids, carbohydrates and metal ions. Polyphenols are the main taste substances of green tea infusion, with catechins as the major components of polyphenols. Catechins are the main contributors of the bitterness and astringency of green tea infusion. Varied intensities of bitterness and astringency of green tea infusions were caused by the different compositions and interactions of catechins. Sensory analysis by human is still the major method for the taste evaluation of tea infusion, which is irreplaceable nowadays. This paper reviewed the taste characteristics of catechins, interactions of taste substances, sensory-analysis method of taste substances, which aimed to improve the theory system of the taste characteristics of catechins and their interactions, and to lay the foundation for the use of sensory-analysis method in relative studies.
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    Metabonomic Analysis on the Effects of different Nitrogen Application Rates and Light/Dark Change on Metabolism in Tea Leaves
    YANG Yi-yang, MA Li-feng, LI Xing-hui, R. G. Ratcliffe, N. J. Kruger, RUAN Jian-yun
    Journal of Tea Science    2013, 33 (6): 491-499.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2013.06.008
    Abstract116)      PDF(pc) (924KB)(135)       Save
    Amino acids, polyphenols, caffeine and other metabolites such as sugars and aromatic substances are important determinants of tea quality. Different cultivation practices affect tea quality by altering the basic metabolite profiles. In this study, the metabolomic changes through nitrogen and samples collected in day and night were investigated in fresh tea shoots by 1H-NMR for non-targeted analysis coupled with a multivariate data analysis and by HPLC for targeted analysis to reveal the mechanism of formation, transformation and relationship of the major characteristic quality components in fresh tea leaves. Non-targeted analysis with 1H-NMR showed significant effect of samples collected in day and night but no difference among N application rates. However, targeted analysis with HPLC showed both significant variations in amino acids and catechins as affected by N rates and light/dark change. There were higher sensitivity of amino acids and sugars but lower sensitivity of tea polyphenols through the metabolomic analysis using 1H-NMR.
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    Cited: Baidu(2)
    The Role of Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase on Nitrogen-regulated Phosphorus Uptake in Tea Plants
    CHEN Linmu, CHEN Jingguang, WANG Ningning, ZHANG Xianchen
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (6): 723-730.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.06.011
    Abstract99)      PDF(pc) (1065KB)(135)       Save
    Phosphorus is one of the most important mineral elements for plant growth and development, and different nitrogen forms can regulate phosphorus uptake. As is well-known that plant plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase plays an important role in nutrition uptake, it may also relate to the different nitrogen-modulated phosphorus uptake. In our study, PM H+-ATPase in tea roots were isolated by two-phase partitioning in aqueous dextranT-500 and polyethylene glycol, and the effect of different nitrogen forms on phosphorus uptake and the characteristic parameters of PM H+-ATPase in tea roots were examined by using non-invasive micro-test technique and Western-blot. It was found that ammonium significantly improved the phosphorus accumulation in tea plants as compared with nitrate nutrition. In addition, less depolarized PM potentials, higher net H+ flux, PM H+-ATPase activities and protein levels were found under ammonium treatment than those under nitrate nutrition treatment. Furthermore, vanadate (the PM H+-ATPase inhibitor) significantly decreased phosphorus accumulation in tea plants under ammonium and nitrate nutrition treatments, which further suggests that PM H+-ATPase may be involved in phosphorus accumulation in tea plants regulated by different nitrogen forms.
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    Research on Main Physical Properties of Tea Leaves in High-quality Green Tea Processing
    LI Chen, AI Zeyi, YU Zhi, CHEN Yuqiong, NI Dejiang
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (6): 705-714.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.06.009
    Abstract206)      PDF(pc) (580KB)(135)       Save
    Taking one bud and one bud with one leaf of tea as the test materials, the variations of physical properties of tea leaves such as bulk density, texture and tensile properties in needle-shaped green tea processing were studied by the method of constant weight and graduated cylinder, TPA and stress-strain tensile test. As a result, the bulk density of tea leaves was first increased and then decreased, with the peak in the rolled leaves (water content 56%-58%). it was sharply decreased during the post-forming, fixing and drying processes. The plasticity presented the same trend with the maximum appeared in the rolling process. It then remained a high level in the forming process (water content 58%-23%), and declined significantly during the fixing and drying processes. The trend of elasticity was opposite to the plasticity, with the lowest level in the rolling and forming processes (water content 58%-23%). Less variation was observed in flexibility during the whole processing. The tensile process of tea leaves undergoed linear, nonlinear and plastic deformation to fracture stages. The trend of maximum force was decreased first and then increased (water content 56%-57%). The tensile strength was increased during the whole processing. The elastic modulus varied a little before the rolling process and then increased significantly. The correlation analysis shows that the tensile strength of tea leaves was significantly and negatively correlated with water content in the processing, and the diversification of main physical properties of one bud and one bud with one leaf in processing were not exactly the same. Besides the similar level of plasticity and flexibility, the bulk density, elasticity and maximum force of one bud were higher than that of one bud with one leaf. While the plasticity, tensile strength and elastic modulus showed an opposite trend. In the whole processing, apart from the similar level of plasticity and flexibility, the bulk density and elasticity of one bud in each process were higher than that of one bud with one leaf, but the elastic modulus and tensile strength showed an opposite trend. the maximum force of one bud with one leaf was significantly higher than that of one bud after the rolling process. In conclusion, the differences in raw materials should be emphasized in the principles of mechanical design and processing techniques.
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    Parameter Optimization and Experimental Study of Tea Twisting Machine Based on EDEM
    LI Bing, LI Weining, BAI Xuanbing, HUANG Jianhong
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (3): 375-385.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.03.008
    Abstract117)      PDF(pc) (3748KB)(135)       Save
    To solve the problems caused by unstable quality in the process of tea twisting, the 6CR-40 tea twisting machine was taken as the research object in this study. The three-dimensional modeling of tea twisting machine was established based on Solidworks. The numerical simulation of the twisting process of tea twisting machine was carried out by the discrete element simulation software EDEM. The influences of various experimental factors on the performance indexes of tea twisting machine were obtained. The quadratic orthogonal rotation test was carried out and the Design-Expert was used to optimize the solution and obtain the best combination of structural parameters of twisting quality. The results showed that: when the twisting barrel rotational speed, the prismatic height, twisting plate inclination angles, forming rate of tea and breaking rate of tea were 42 r·min-1, 10 mm, 3.8°, 88.55% and 1.83% respectively, the tea twisting machine had a good quality of twisting. The results of verification test and simulation optimization were basically consistent.
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    The Trade & Dissemination of China Dark Tea
    JI Xiao-ming
    Journal of Tea Science    2006, 26 (3): 159-165.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2006.03.001
    Abstract75)      PDF(pc) (316KB)(133)       Save
    Dark tea has been a great part of traditional China tea. The historical trade way and the market evolution of the main kinds of dark tea, which are from Hunan, Hubei, Sichuan, Yunnan, Guangxi, were discussed according to a great deal of historical records. The author believed that dark tea originated from Ya’an, and put forward some opinion and argument. The author also discussed the relationship of tea trade and historical trade achievement in northwest. The important historical role and affects on Chinese politics, economy, and culture were discussed in the paper, too.
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    Screening and Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-time PCR Analysis in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis) under Different Nitrogen Nutrition
    LIU Yuan, WANG Liyuan, WEI Kang, CHENG Hao, ZHANG Fen, WU Liyun, HU Juan
    Journal of Tea Science    2016, 36 (1): 92-101.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2016.01.012
    Abstract92)      PDF(pc) (1081KB)(132)       Save
    The objective of this study was to select the most reliable reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis of target tea plant genes under varying nitrogen source and availability. We chose 6 housekeeping genes which included five commonly used and one new candidates to systematically assess their expression levels at three different tissues (young leaves, mature leaves and roots) under different nitrogen regimes by qRT-PCR. GeNorm and NormFinder software were used to analyze and evaluate the data for reference genes. The results indicated that GAPDH, β-actin and RPL13 are the best reference genes for normalizing target gene expression in tea plant under different nitrogen nutrition, whereas α-tubulin and RuBP are not suitable in many experimental conditions and the best combination (GAPDH+β-actin) was recommended. Meanwhile, the expression levels of CsNRT1.2 and CsAMT1.1 in young leaves of tea plants were analyzed. The results showed that the variation tendency of CsNRT1.2 and CsAMT1.1 are exactly consistent when using GAPDH and GAPDH+β-actin as reference genes. However, the expression levels of these genes are showed significant differences when α-tubulin was used as a reference gene. Thus, validation of suitable reference genes for specific condition can guarantee the accurate quantification of the target genes in qRT-PCR analysis.
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    Research on the Preparation of Tea Soup for Sensory Evaluation of Hunan Dark Tea
    LUO Yuan, LI Shi, HUANG Jian′an, XIAO Lizheng, OU Xingchang, AN Huimin
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (3): 289-296.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.03.006
    Abstract303)      PDF(pc) (798KB)(132)    PDF(mobile) (798KB)(16)    Save
    Using one-time brewing method, the dynamic changes of water extracts and major biochemical components in different types of Hunan dark teas were studied. The aroma, liquor color, taste and infused leaves were compared according to the Chinese national standard. The results show that the amino acids, polyphenols and total water extraction could be extracted effectively by the one-time brewing method (the ratio of tea to water was 1∶50, 8 min with 100℃ water), especially for the compact type of Hunan black tea. The tea soup is also acceptable for sensory evaluation. So here we provided a convenient method for brewing Hunan dark tea.
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    Nondestructive Measurement of Moisture of Black Tea in Drying Process Based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy
    CHEN Lin, DONG Chunwang, GAO Mingzhu, YE Yang
    Journal of Tea Science    2016, 36 (2): 184-190.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2016.02.009
    Abstract108)      PDF(pc) (1052KB)(131)       Save
    Moisture is an important index of tea drying effect and quality. To understand rapid detection of moisture in black tea, a nondestructive testing method was proposed based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIR). The diffuse reflectance spectra of 226 tea samples were scanned in the range of 1 000-1 799 nm. These samples were from 6 drying processes. Moisture contents of samples were immediately measured after spectral scanning. The original spectrum data were proposed by the Standard Normal Variate Transformation (SNVT). Two regression algorithms including Partial Least Square (PLS) and Synergy Interval Partial Least Square (siPLS) were used to develop models for determination of moisture contents respectively. The result showed that both models had high accuracy, but the performance of model with siPLS was better. It contained 13 spectral intervals combined with 4 subinterval and 6 principal component factors. The root mean square for prediction (RMSEP) and the correlation coefficient (Rp) reached 0.0395 and 0.9593, respectively. It showed that it is feasible to measure moisture content of black tea during drying process.
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    Red paleosols and Tea Plant Growth in China
    LU Jing-gang, WU Jian-jun, ZHAO Dong, TANG Gen-nian
    Journal of Tea Science    2006, 26 (2): 87-90.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2006.02.002
    Abstract76)      PDF(pc) (389KB)(131)       Save
    This paper tallied up that the distribution of plinthitic red paleosol is just coincide with the tea in the area north of Yantze River(Fig.1).Moreover, there are two tea areas outside of the red earth zone on the distributional map (Rizhao area in Shangdong Province. And Chayu area in Tibet)。It can be recognized that both of them had been influenced by the red paleosol on the soil property. All of these showed that the red paleosol could promote the tea plant growth.Therefore the influences of the red paleosol should not be negnected on the study of tea garden soil.
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    Review on the Changes of Biochemical Components and the Influencing Factors in Piling Process of Yellow Tea
    HUA Jinjie, JIANG Yongwen, YUAN Haibo, YIN Junfeng, ZHONG Weibiao, YU Shuping, XIE Qiantu
    Journal of Tea Science    2015, 35 (3): 203-208.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.03.001
    Abstract107)      PDF(pc) (498KB)(130)       Save
    During the piling process, dramatic changes of biochemical components in tea leaves are occurred under heat and humid effects: the content of chlorophyll drops sharply under oxidative degradation reactions, the composition and proportion of catechins are significantly changed under oxidation and isomerization reactions, the contents of amino acids and soluble sugar are also been changed. These changes provide an important material foundation for the unique quality formation of yellow tea: yellow soup, yellow leaves, mellow taste, etc. This paper reviewed the dynamic variation of quality biochemical compositions and microorganism in the piling process, the key influencing factors of piling process, as well as puts the prospects for the future research trends of piling technology.
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    Cloning and Functional Analysis of CsLCYb and CsLCYe for Carotene Biosynthesis in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis
    LIU Guanhua, YANG Mei, FU Jianyu,
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (3): 257-266.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.03.003
    Abstract268)      PDF(pc) (2098KB)(130)    PDF(mobile) (2098KB)(10)    Save
    Carotene, participating in photosynthesis and protecting photosynthetic system, is one of the important pigments of tea leaves. Two key genes [lycopene β-cyclase gene (CsLCYb) and lycopene ε-cyclase gene (CsLCYe)] of carotene biosynthesis in tea plant were cloned from transcriptome. They are 1 515 bp and 1 524 bp in length, and encode 504 and 507 amino acid residues, respectively. Based on sequences alignment, CsLCYb and CsLCYe are highly conserved as compared with the homologous genes from other plants. Multiple-gene tandem expression indicated that CsLCYb can cyclize lycopene to β-carotene while CsLCYe was inactive. The enzymatic activities of the two genes were further confirmed by ELISA method in E. coli. It showed that CsLCYb was able to generate a large amount of carotene, which was significantly different from the negative control. However, no carotene was detected in the colonies with the expression plasmid of pAC-LYC-CsLCYe. The type and content of carotene in tea foliage were consistent with previous reports, which proved that carotene was mainly produced by the LCYb pathway in tea plant. The qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of CsLCYb in buds and different leaves of Zhonghuang 2 was positively correlated with the degree of chlorisis and the content of carotene. Furthermore, its relative expression in normal cultivar Longjing 43 and chlorisis cultivar Zhonghuang 2 also showed similar pattern. These findings confirmed that CsLCYb plays a key role in the carotene biosynthesis and leaf color changing in tea plant, which also provided an important genetic basis for uncovering the molecular mechanism of chlorisis in tea cultivars.
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    Study on the Toxicology of Se-Enriching Ampelopsis Grossedentata from Enshi
    CHEN Yu-qiong, XIANG Ban-gui, NI De-jiang, WU Mou-cheng, ZHOU Ji-rong, YU Zhi, ZENG Wei-chao
    Journal of Tea Science    2005, 25 (4): 295-299.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2005.04.010
    Abstract94)      PDF(pc) (267KB)(129)       Save
    The water extract of Enshi Se-enriching Tengcha(ESTC) on the animal safety was investigated according to the Standard of Health Food Test and Assess. Acute toxicity test on mice showed that LD50 was greater than 30βg/kg.bw. Three genetic tests showed negative results. 90 days feeding test showed that the outer appearance, behavior, weights, organ coefficients, the indexes of hematology and biochemistry in rats have no significant difference comparing with the control group. Significant pathological changes of inherent organs were not discovered. All results showed that ESTC was safet for rats.
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    Effects of Different Types of Water Quality on the Sensory Properties and Main Chemcial Compositions of Longjing Tea Infusions
    GONG Zhiping, YIN Junfeng, CHEN Gensheng
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (2): 215-224.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.02.008
    Abstract191)      PDF(pc) (508KB)(129)       Save
    In order to understand the effect of water quality on the flavor of tea infusions, six typical drinking water (including tap water, Wahaha Purified water, Hupao cold spring water, C cell vitality small molecule group water, 5100 Tibet glacier mineral water, Jianlong volcano cold mineral water) were selected as the research objects. The effects of different types of water quality on the flavor quality and chemical composition of tea infusions were studied by sensory evaluation and component analysis. The results show that the purified water and Hupao cold spring water were weakly acidic, and had low Ca2+, Mg2+ and total ion contents, which were more suitable to brew Longjing tea. In terms of the quality of flavor, it could better control the bitterness, astringency and freshness of tea soup, and reflect the richness and purity of the unique aroma of the tea infusions. Through the analysis of flavor substances, with the increase of ion concentration of drinking water, the contents of tea polyphenols, amino acids, EGCG, ester catechins and oxalic acid in the tea infusions were significantly reduced. The contents of caffeine and total sugar were not significantly different. The flavonoid content slightly increased. The mineral water with higher concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ effectively inhibited the release of 17 characteristic aroma components of Longjing tea infusions, such as linalool, Trans-butyrate-3-hexene ester, dodecane, tetradecyl, cis-3-Hexenyl isovalerate, geraniol and β-ionone. This study analyzed the effect of water quality on the composition of tea flavor substances and the volatility of aroma substances, and preliminarily determined that the water quality factor was the main reason for the taste difference of Longjing tea infusions. This research preliminarily illuminated the effect of water quality on the flavor composition and aroma volatilization of tea infusions,and the results provided a theoretical basis for tea flavor chemistry, scientific tea making and water selection for tea beverage manufacturing.
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    Study on Physiological Characteristics of Leaves with Different Colors of ‘Huangjinya’
    FAN Yangen, ZHAO Xiuxiu, WANG Hanyue, TIAN Yueyue, XIANG Qinzeng, ZHANG Lixia
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (5): 530-536.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.05.004
    Abstract287)      PDF(pc) (410KB)(128)       Save
    In order to screen suitable materials for studying the molecular mechanism of ‘Huangjinya’, the spring shoots of ‘Huangjinya’ were treated with double shading (average light intensity of 10βklx), single shading (average light intensity of 40βklx) and non-shading. And three new shoots, light green (H1W), light yellow (H4W) and bright yellow (Hs), were obtained. At the same time, the second leaf under bud was selected as material with ‘Fudingdabai’ green shoot (CKf) as control. The content of hydrogen peroxide, oxygen-and histochemical localization, antioxidant enzyme activity, photosynthetic response curve, chlorophyll fluorescence and other physiological indicators of leaves were measured and the structure of chloroplast membrane system was observed. The results show that The H2O2, O2- contents, Fv/Fm value and chloroplast membrane system of light yellow leaf H4W were similar to those of light green leaf H1W, which were in a stress-free state. At the same time, the photosynthetic and physiological characteristics of light yellow leaf H4W and bright yellow leaf Hs were similar. There were no significant differences in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and photosynthetic indexes such as ΦPSⅡ, qP, light saturation point and light compensation point, and the characteristics of light response curve were similar. Because of the above physiological characteristics of light yellow leaf H4W, it could be used as the research material to explore the molecular mechanism of yellowing of golden bud tea varieties.
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    Intervention Effects of Fuzhuan Brick Tea Water Extract on Glucose Metabolism Disorder in a Mouse Model of Type Ⅱ Diabetes Mellitus
    HUANG Song, LIU Zhonghua, HUANG Jian′an, YANG Heng, LI Qin
    Journal of Tea Science    2016, 36 (3): 250-260.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2016.03.004
    Abstract95)      PDF(pc) (1667KB)(128)       Save
    In this study, streptozotocin (STZ) combined with a high-fat and high-sugar diet was used to generate a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypoglycemic effects of Fuzhuan brick tea water extract (FTEs) on T2DM-Mice. Results showed that FTEs could obviously alleviate weight loss, polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia, reduce fasting plasma glucose, increase sugar tolerance, enhance insulin concentrations and insulin sensitivity and decrease insulin resistance in the diabetic mice. Moreover, RT-qPCR analysis showed that FTEs promoted glucose transport and liver lipid metabolism, and improved the glucose metabolism in the diabetic mice by increasing the expression of PPAR-α, GLUT2, and GLUT4. Therefore, it can be concluded that FTEs could significantly improve glucose metabolism disorder symptom of T2DM-Mice by a dose-dependent manner.
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    Study on Main Microbes on Quality Formation of Yunnan Puer Tea during Pile-fermentation Process
    ZHOU Hong-jie, LI Jia-hua, ZHAO Long-fei, Han Jun, YANG Xing-ji, YANG Wei, WU Xin-zhuang
    Journal of Tea Science    2004, 24 (3): 212-218.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2004.03.012
    Abstract124)      PDF(pc) (976KB)(127)       Save
    The investigation on microbes during the pile-fermentation process of Yunnan puer tea shows that the main microbes are Aspergillus niger, Penicllium, Rhizopus, Aspergillus gloucus, Saccharomyces, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus candidus, Bacterium etc. The number of Aspergillus niger is the most among them, and it produce glucoamylase, pectinase, cellulase ect. The next is Saccharomyces. Besides it possesses rich nutrition which is helpful to human heath, enzymatic system, physiologicial active substances, the yeast can produce vitamin B1, B2 and C etc. These microbes play direct and indirect roles on quality formation of puer tea.
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    Effects of Catechins on the Proliferation and Migration of ECV304 Cell
    ZHANG Yu-yan, SHEN Sheng-rong
    Journal of Tea Science    2005, 25 (2): 100-108.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2005.02.004
    Abstract75)      PDF(pc) (920KB)(126)       Save
    By employing techniques of cell culture, the effects of four tea catechins, EGCG, ECG, EC and C were investigated on the proliferation and migration of ECV304 by the authors. The result demonstrated that EGCG was the most effective in cell viability among the four tested catechins. Viability of ECV304 were significantly different in the case of the concentrations of EGCG ,which was ranged from 50 to 150 μmol/L. The IC50 of EGCG was 75~150 μmol/L, EGCG was also effective in cell migration in a dose dependent manner, the IC50 was 150 μmol/L. EGCG could inhibit angiogensis, which may be related to the decreased migration of endothelial cell. The IC50 was at 390 μmol/L and 370 μmol/L in 36 hour-disposal and 48 hour-disposal of ECG respectively. The viability of ECV304 disposed by C and EC were above 80%. It was indicated that catechins showed insignificant inhibitory effect on normal cell growth and migration at the concentration of lower than 75 μmol/L.
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    Anticancer Activity of Theaflavin Diagallate and its Mechanism
    JIANG He-yuan, Hang Xiao, YUAN Xin-yue, WANG Chuan-pi, Chung S Yang
    Journal of Tea Science    2007, 27 (1): 33-38.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2007.01.005
    Abstract91)      PDF(pc) (406KB)(126)       Save
    Theaflavin digallate was purified by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Its anticancer activity and mechanism were analyzed on H1299 and HCT-116 cancer cell lines. Results from MTT assay showed that Theaflavin digallate could inhibit the growth of H1299, and its IC50 value is 25μmol/L. Theaflavin digallate could slightly adjust the cell cycle of HCT-116 cancer cell, and significantly promote the apoptosis of HCT-116 cancer cell at 50μmol/L. Theaflavin digallagte could decrease the expression of cancer-promoting biomarker, Bcl-xL, and increase the expression of cancer-inhibiting biomarker, Bax, on HCT-116 cancer cell line.
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    Cited: Baidu(15)
    Study and Prospect of Soil Acidification Causes and Improvement Measures in Tea Plantation
    FAN Zhanhui, TANG Xiaojun, ZHENG Dan, YANG Qin, CHEN Guangnian, LI Xiaowen, SUN Jiabin
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (1): 15-25.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.20200117.006
    Abstract270)      PDF(pc) (364KB)(126)       Save
    In recent years, the acidification of tea garden soil has become increasingly serious due to the influences of internal and external factors. Soil acidification of tea plantation mainly manifests as soil structural deterioration, reduced fertility and increased heavy metal content. These variations can affect the growth and development of tea trees and reduce the tea quality, and may even harm human health, seriously threaten the sustainable development of tea plantation. This paper reviewed the research advance on soil acidification of tea plantations in recent years, summarized the causes, harms and improvement measures for soil acidification, and finally proposed the future research directions.
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    The Brick Tea from the Perspective of Social Science
    DUAN Ji-ye
    Journal of Tea Science    2011, 31 (2): 143-151.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2011.02.011
    Abstract88)      PDF(pc) (436KB)(124)       Save
    This article summarized the major producing area and five selling pathway of brick tea. It is the first time in trying to intergrate our familiar Tea-Horse Road and Tea Route into the concept of “brick road”. The paper regarded the special status of brick tea in the northern ethnic minority areas is established by these factors such as the biological characteristics of brick tea itself, the economic and cultural characteristics and so on. The paper highlighted that brick tea possesses significant social functions. Around the production, long-distance transport and marketing of the brick tea, national association between the mainland and the northwest minority areas formed for thousands of years, producing the famous “Tea-horse Trade” economy and “Frontier tea” politics, creating the reputation abroad of the “Tea-Horse Route” and “Tea Route” culture. What's more, the brick tea also played a fundamental role in the formation of the northwest ethnic relations, town, political governance and brick tea culture.
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    Study on the Changes of Primary Metabolites During the Manufacturing Process of Roasted Green Tea by Pre-column Derivatization Combining with GC-MS
    CHEN Mei, DAI Weidong, LI Pengliang, ZHU Yin, CHEN Qincao, YANG Yanqin, TAN Junfeng, LIN Zhi
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (3): 297-308.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.03.007
    Abstract179)      PDF(pc) (462KB)(124)    PDF(mobile) (462KB)(8)    Save
    Few if any previous studies were carried out in the field of primary metabolite changes during the manufacturing process of roasted green tea. Longjing 43 was used to make roasted green tea and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with derivatization was used to determine the components. A total of 60 compounds were identified, which included high levels of organic acids, carbohydrates and carbohydrate derivatives. Each steps of the processing could be successfully distinguished by partial least-squares discriminant analysis based on 26 key compounds. The results of cluster analysis indicated that the content changes of the 26 compounds could be classified into three categories: high-low: 2-ketoglutaric acid, arabinose, gallic acid, glucopyranosiduronic acid, glyceryl-glucoside, ribose, galactose, fructose, glucose, phosphoric acid, 4-ketoglucose, ribono-1,4-lactone, and mannitol. High-low-high: homogentisic acid, sucrose, galactinol, threonic acid, turanose, ribonic acid, inositol and citric acid. Low-high-low: erythrose-1,4-lactone, oxypropyl phosphate, pyroglutamic acid, quinic acid and hexanedioic acid. Organic acids mainly showed a rising and then downward trend. Carbohydrates except sucrose showed a downward trend.
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    Research Progress of Black Tea on the Physiological Regulation and Disease Prevention in Gastrointestinal Tract
    DU Yu, YUAN Haibo, CHEN Xiaoqiang, HU Ting, JIANG Yongwen
    Journal of Tea Science    2017, 37 (1): 10-16.  
    Abstract104)      PDF(pc) (648KB)(123)       Save
    Fresh leaves are processed into black tea by a series of enzymatic oxidation and other reactions. There are some distinctions in the flavor and functional chemicals between black tea and other tea. The black tea is endued with numerous health care functions by its chemical components, which play roles in the physiological regulation and illness prevention in gastrointestinal tract. The functional components in black tea can keep the intestinal flora balance by inhibiting the growth of harmful bacteria and promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria, protect the gastrointestinal mucosa by preventing oxidation of tissues, repairing oxidative damages and interaction with gastric mucus, glutathione and other substances. It can also adjust digestion and absorption by interaction with the enzyme digestion and promoting gastrointestinal peristasis, prevent gastrointestinal disease by interaction with the immune system regulatory factors, related transcription factors and enzymes. This paper reviews the recent advance in physiological regulation and disease prevention by black tea.
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    Distribution Characteristics of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Compounds in Tea Fresh Leaves
    HU Linling, LIU Zunying, LIU Qiuling, FENG Jinyu, LONG Jinhua, XIAO Wenjun
    Journal of Tea Science    2014, 34 (6): 565-571.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2014.06.017
    Abstract92)      PDF(pc) (640KB)(123)       Save
    The distribution characteristics of 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon(PAHs) in different fresh tea leaves of different tea cultivars in different seasons were analyzed by using HPLC. Results showed that Zhenghedabaicha has lowest concentration of 16 PAHs and lowest standard deviation between Zhenghedabai, Taoyuandaye and Xiangfeicui, the average content is 126.92 μg·kg-1, the standard deviation is 17.59 μg·kg-1, the concentration of 16 PAHs and standard deviation in different part of tea leaves is expressed as: the bud< the second leaf< the fourth leaf< the sixth leaf, the PAHs′ concentration in bud is 119.13 μg·kg-1, standard deviation is 14.36 μg·kg-1. The concentration of 16 PAHs in different seasons is expressed as autumn<spring<summer in one year. The concentration of PAHs in autumn is 112.75 μg·kg-1, standard deviation is 11.97 μg·kg-1, 16 PAHs in fresh tea leaves are mainly composed of 2, 3 rings, account for about 80%. The proportion of 4-6 rings PAHs is lower.
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    A Sensing PVC Membrane Based on Fluorescence Enhancement of Erythromycin A for Lead (Ⅱ) Detection in FU Tea
    LONG Liping, MENG Wei, WANG Jiaoliang, XIE Dan, HE Guowen, XIAO Guqing
    Journal of Tea Science    2017, 37 (3): 273-279.  
    Abstract77)      PDF(pc) (972KB)(122)       Save
    An optical chemical sensing membrane based on reversible fluorescence enhancement of Erythromycin A immobilized in a plasticized poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane for Lead (Ⅱ) detection was developed. The membrane of the sensor consists of 50 mg of PVC, 100 mg of Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and 2.94 mg of Erythromycin A. The maximum response of the sensing membrane to Lead (Ⅱ) was obtained in Tris/HCl buffer solution ( pH 8.0). Under optimal conditions, the proposed sensor responded linearly to Lead (Ⅱ) in the range of 4.00-6.00 mmol/L and had a detection limit of 0.10 μmol·L-1. The response time of the sensor was less than 50 s. In addition to the high reproducibility and reversibility of the fluorescence signal, the sensor also exhibited good selectivity. Except for Cr2O72- and MnO4-, it was not interfered by other common metal ions and anions. It was applied for the determination of Lead(Ⅱ) in a sample of FU Tea, which offered a satisfactory result.
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    Study on the Inhibition of Mixture of Tea-Polyphenol and Vitamin C on Helicobacter Pylori
    XIAO Bo, QU Hui-ge, HUANG Qing-rong, YU Chuan-chuan, ZHAO Bo
    Journal of Tea Science    2006, 26 (4): 295-298.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2006.04.012
    Abstract95)      PDF(pc) (348KB)(122)       Save
    The mixture of tea-polyphenol (TP) and vitamin C(VC) with various concentrations were interfused into the liquid medium, then the inhibitive effect of the mixture on Helicobacter Pylori was determined in vitro. The result indicates that the inhibitive effect of the mixed solution of tea-polyphenol and vitamin C is more efficient than that of individuals, separately. The strongest inhibition is 98.23% when the concentration of mixture is TP 1.2βmg/ml, VC 0.08βmg/ml.
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    Evaluation of Nitrogen Status in Tea Plants by SPAD
    YANG Yi-yang, MA Li-feng, SHI Yuan-zhi, RUAN Jian-yun, LI Xing-hui
    Journal of Tea Science    2008, 28 (4): 301-308.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2008.04.007
    Abstract92)      PDF(pc) (525KB)(121)       Save
    Determination of nitrogen concentrations in tissues is an important diagnostic means for N status of plants. A pot experiment with tea plants applied with different amounts of N fertilizer was carried out to evaluate the usefulness of SPAD-502 as a diagnostic tool. The results showed that the yield of young shoots and N concentration of mature leaves responded to N application rates with a pattern of an initial linear increase before a platform was reached. There was a significantly positive linear relationship between the SPAD reading and total N concentration of mature leaves. The similar pattern of an initial linear increase followed by a platform was observed for the relationship between SPAD reading and the yield. These results suggested that the N status of tea plants may be characterized by the measurement of SPAD reading of mature leaves and the SPAD is a potentially useful rapid diagnostic tool in N fertilization recommendation. However, this needs further validation from field experiments. Those factors which may influence the precision of SPAD measurement, such as the point of test on a leaf, selection of leaves from twig (position), weather condition, in situ or in vitro analysis, surface cleaning and the number of leaves for a composite sample were also investigated.
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    Cited: Baidu(15)
    Effect of Withering Temperature on Dynamic Changes of Main Biochemical Components and Enzymatic Activity of Tea Fresh Leaves
    HUA Jinjie, YUAN Haibo, WANG Weiwei, JIANG Yongwen, LIU Qianlu, CHEN Gensheng, WANG Fang
    Journal of Tea Science    2015, 35 (1): 73-81.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.01.014
    Abstract96)      PDF(pc) (615KB)(121)       Save
    By using of two leaves and a bud shoot as fresh tea leave material, setting three different withering temperature (20, 28, 36℃), sampled leaves with different moisture content, then the contents of tea polyphenols, total amino acids, flavonoids, total soluble protein, soluble sugar, PPO activity, and POD activity were determined to study the effect of withering temperature on dynamic changes of main biochemical components and enzymatic activity of tea fresh leaves, and the effects of different withering temperature on main biochemical components of rolled leaves, fermented leaves and fired tea were also analysed. The results show that with the increasing of withering time, moisture content of tea fresh leaves decrease gradually, the contents of tea polyphenols, total soluble protein and soluble sugar decrease gradually accordingly, and the contents of tea polyphenols were no difference between 28℃ and 36℃, but are obviously higher than that in 20℃; the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar are negatively correlated with temperature; the contents of total amino acids and flavonoids increase gradually, and are positively correlated with temperature; the released amount of CO2 decreased at first, then increase and decrease finally, and the amount is the largest when the withering light temperature is 36℃; polyphenol oxidase activity shows a slow downward trend, peroxidase activity shows an upward trend, and they are the highest at 28℃. The contents of theaflavins, thearubigins, and polyphenols are also the highest at 28℃; the results of sensory evaluation also shows that the liquor color and taste of black tea at 28℃ had the highest score, with the best quality.
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    Cloning and Expression Analysis of CsbHLH2 in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)
    HAN Yongtao, XIAO Bin, QIAN Wenjun, LIANG Shaoru
    Journal of Tea Science    2015, 35 (5): 481-490.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.05.012
    Abstract84)      PDF(pc) (1245KB)(121)       Save
    The bHLH (basic Helix-Loop-Helix) transcription factor is one of the most important transcription factor in plants, which play important roles in plant growth and stress regulation. The bHLH transcription factor CsbHLH2 was cloned from tea plant (Camellia sinensis) cultivars ‘Shanchayihao’ by homologous cloning technology using cDNA template. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the CsbHLH2 contains 714 bp ORF and was predicted encoding 297 amino acid, the deduced protein molecular weight was 58.4 kD and its theoretical isoelectric point was 5.14. Amino acid sequence alignment revealed that CsbHLH2 was highly homologous to other higher plant bHLH proteins. Transient expression of recombinant plasmid CsbHLH2/PBI221-GFP in Arabidopsis protoplasts showed that CsbHLH2 was located in cell nuclei. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the expression profiles showed that the CsbHLH2 gene was expressed in bud, leaf, stem and root. The highest expression level of the CsbHLH2 was found in the young leaf. Different hormone treatments results showed that the CsbHLH2 was induced by ETH, MEJA and SA treatment, respectively.
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    The Mechanism of the Lipid-lowering Effect of Tea by Regulating the SREBP
    PAN Lianyun, LU Yan, GONG Yushun
    Journal of Tea Science    2018, 38 (1): 102-111.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.01.011
    Abstract81)      PDF(pc) (1101KB)(120)       Save
    Tea has a lipid-lowering effect through regulating lipid metabolism in different tissues and inhibiting digestion and absorption of lipid. The lipid metabolism pathway affects the synthesis and decomposition of lipid and fat decreasing through regulating the expression of Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins (SREBPs) and its relative factors.
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    Research Progress and Discussion on Fungal Contamination of Dark Tea
    JIANG Yihe, XU Wei, ZHU Qi
    Journal of Tea Science    2018, 38 (3): 227-236.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.03.002
    Abstract150)      PDF(pc) (1086KB)(119)       Save
    Microbial extracellular enzyme catalytic activity is the key factor of dark tea quality formation, and the later storage causes changes in the microbiological system in dark tea. To explore the potential food safety risks of fungus system in dark tea products, the research results of dark tea fungi pollution were reviewed. It showed that a variety of contaminating fungal toxins could be detected in dark tea samples, such as aflatoxins, ochratoxins, deoxynivalenol. Studies showed that toxin exposure of dark tea samples were low, and multi-active components of dark tea could down-regulate part of genes associating with aflatoxins, thus inhibited aflatoxin production in dark tea matrix samples. It was pointed out that it is safe to produce and drink dark tea regularly, and the development direction of dark tea processing is the application of directional fermentation technologies.
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    Review on Aroma Change during Black Tea Processing
    LIU Fei, WANG Yun, ZHANG Ting, TANG Xiaobo, WANG Xiaoping, LI Chunhua
    Journal of Tea Science    2018, 38 (1): 9-19.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.01.002
    Abstract152)      PDF(pc) (772KB)(119)       Save
    Aroma, as an important character of black tea, influences the intuitive judgment of tea drinkers. Black tea got various scents by the volatile compounds from glycosides hydrolyzation, carotenoids and lipids degradation, Maillard reaction pathway, and caramelization reaction. This paper reviewed the influencing factors involved in aroma formation during black tea processing from fresh tea leaves, withering, rolling, fermentation, to drying. The prospects for future research trends of black tea aroma were also suggested.
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    Protective Effect of Tea Polysaccharides on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Liver Injury in Mice
    FANG Wei, CHEN Yan, SUN Yu-jun
    Journal of Tea Science    2008, 28 (1): 67-71.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2008.01.012
    Abstract75)      PDF(pc) (421KB)(117)       Save
    A polysaccharide named TPS-II was isolated from the water extraction of Liu’an Roasted Green Tea and purified by chromatography. The homogeneity of TPS-II was identified, its protective effect on carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in mice was investigated. Results indicated that the molecular weight of TPS-II is about 1.01×105, whose total content of saccharide and protein were 85.30% and 2.80% respectively, and its protective effect against CCl4 induced acute liver injury is significant.
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    Cited: Baidu(7)
    Study on Soil Selenium Content and Its Influencing Factors in Typical Tea Garden of Fujian Province
    YU Wenquan, WANG Feng, CHEN Yuzhen, SHANG Riyang, YOU Zhiming, ZANG Chunrong, CHEN Changsong
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (2): 173-185.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.02.004
    Abstract177)      PDF(pc) (350KB)(117)       Save
    A total of 60 samples of surface soils (0-20 cm) were collected from main tea producing areas of Fujian province to assess the total and available soil selenium. Their relations with soil physical and chemical properties were also discussed. The results show that content of total selenium in the surface soils ranged from 0.22 mg·kg-1 to 2.20 mg·kg-1 with an average of 0.73 mg·kg-1, and 86.67% of the soils belonged to Se-rich soils. The ranges of available selenium in soil were from 5.21 to 448.86 μg·kg-1, with a mean of 62.98 μg·kg-1. The available rate of selenium ranged from 1.10% to 31.64%, with a mean of 8.76%. The total and available selenium contents in soils from glutenite and tuff were higher, and those in soils from purple sandstone and river alluvium were lower. For different soil types, alpine meadow soil showed the highest total and available selenium content, while moisture sand yand paddy soils were relatively lower. The total and available selenium contents in mature and old tea gardens were the highest, and the young tea garden was the lowest. The total and available selenium contents in the middle-high elevation tea garden were the highest, and the low elevation tea garden was the lowest. Selenium content in tea garden soil was significantly positively correlated with soil organic matter and total nitrogen contents. Whereas the soil pH also significantly affect the selenium content in red soil and young tea garden. And, the soil available phosphate was also a significant effect on selenium content in mature and middle-high elevation tea garden. In general, the Se-enriched soils in the tea gardens provided a source guarantee for the development of Se-enriched tea. However, the effectiveness of soil selenium was not high and should be adjusted in tea garden via different cultivation measures (additional application of organic fertilizers, ameliorant and calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizers) to increase availability selenium content.
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    Evaluation on the Function and Toxicity of Extraction of Characteristic Components in Yunnan pu-erh Tea
    GONG Jia-shun, CHEN Wen-ping, ZHOU Hong-jie, DONG Zhao-jun, ZHANG Yi-fang
    Journal of Tea Science    2007, 27 (3): 201-210.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2007.03.011
    Abstract94)      PDF(pc) (2116KB)(115)       Save
    :The anti-fatigue, reduced cholesterol function, acute toxicity and the mutagenicity of extraction of characteristic components in Yunnan pu-erh tea were studied using mouse as experimental animals. It had significant function of anti-fatigue and reduced cholesterol for mouse, its effects was better than that of water extracts of pu-erh tea. The oral acute toxicity in mouse,Ames test,micronucleus test in bone narrow and chromosome abnormality test of characteristic components extraction in Yunnan pu-erh tea were also carried out.The oral LD50 value of this extraction in mouse was more than 10.0βg/kg.The number of relevant strain colonies had no remarkable increase in the Ames test with and without S9 mixture, and the relationship of dose-response was also not found. The micronucleus rates and chromosome abnormality rates at all range of doses had no significant difference compared with the control group. At the dose of 500~5β000βμg/ml, the characteristic components extraction could not cause the increase of mutagenic rate of CHL (Chinese Hamster Lung Fibroblast, CHL) cells. It suggested that the extraction of characteristic components in Yunnan pu-erh tea has no mutagenicity for mouse.
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    Sensory Characteristics of Tea Polyphenols and It’s Effects on Astringency of Tea
    TONG Hua-rong, JIN Xiao-fang, GONG Xue-lian
    Journal of Tea Science    2006, 26 (2): 79-86.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2006.02.001
    Abstract91)      PDF(pc) (483KB)(115)       Save
    There are a large amount of tea polyphenols in tea. Tea polyphenols show great effects on astringency of tea taste. Astringency is the principal sensory notes of tea tastes, and show a great influence on the total sensory quality of tea. This paper reviews the sensory characteristics of tea polyphenols, analysis of astringency and the effects of tea polyphenols on astringency of tea infusions.
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    Studies on Hyperlipidemia TherapyCompounds in Fuzhuan Tea
    FU Dong-he, LIU Zhong-hua, HUANG Jian-an, CAI Wen-li
    Journal of Tea Science    2012, 32 (3): 217-223.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2012.03.006
    Abstract104)      PDF(pc) (700KB)(115)       Save
    Six compounds were separated from Fuzhuan Tea by using the combined modern separation technique with High-Throughput Screening(HTS) technique. After using IR,UV, MS, NMR , etc., the compounds were identified as follows: gallic acid(GA), (+)-gallocatechin 〔(+)-GC〕, 3-methoxy-4,5-dihydroxy-benzoic acid(MDBA), 3,4-dihydroxy-benzoic acid(DBA), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate〔(-)-EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin gallate((-)-ECG〕. The six compounds separated from Fuzhuan Tea were tested by cell model FXR, LXR, PPARδ, PPARγ and 3T3-L1. These results showed that the concentration of 50.00µg/mL GA and ECG were active in the FXR model. The active value was 1.77±0.14 and 3.22±0.06 separately. The active value of EGCG in the FXR model reached 6.00±0.45 when the concentration was 50.00µg/mL. To PPARδ, the active value of GC in PPARγ model was 1.62±0.16 when the concentration was 30.00µg/mL. The active value in MDBA to PPARγ was 1.73±0.16. All the compounds were not obviously active in 3T3-L1 model.
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    Cited: Baidu(11)
    A New Disease of Tea Plant Caused by Phoma adianticola
    YANG Wen, CHEN Yao, CHEN Xiaojun, YAO Yongjing, ZHOU Yufeng
    Journal of Tea Science    2016, 36 (1): 59-67.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2016.01.008
    Abstract96)      PDF(pc) (1328KB)(115)       Save
    This paper aims to study the pathogen isolation and identification of a kind of disease causing browning on tea buds. The pathogenic strain was obtained according to Koch's Rule. The results of morphological observation of strains and the rDNA ITS molecular identification under the condition of PDA culture showed that the pathogen was a fungus of phoma. The pathogenic strain was further identified in according to the identification procedures of phoma. After 7 days on the OA and MA culture medium, the average diameter of colonies was 6.0-6.4 cm. Pycnidia were globose with 1-2 ostioles, glabrous or with some hyphal outgrowths. Conidia were ellipsoidal, aseptate, usually with two polar guttules, mostly (4.9-6.3) μm× (2.1-2.8) μm in size. The NaOH reaction was positive on OA and MA, the colour became yellow-green. The characteristics described above showed that the pathogen was preliminarily identified as Phoma adianticola. This disease of tea buds caused by P. adianticola may be a new disease of tea plant. According to the symptoms of infection, this disease was temporarily described as the buds-browning disease of tea.
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    Analysis of Glutathione S-transferase Genes in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis) Based on Transcriptome Analysis
    ZHANG Yazhen, WEI Kang, WANG Liyuan, CHENG Hao
    Journal of Tea Science    2016, 36 (5): 513-522.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2016.05.010
    Abstract97)      PDF(pc) (971KB)(114)       Save
    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) belong to a superfamily of multifunctional enzymes and are ubiquitous in plants. Forty nine CsGSTs genes were identified by transcriptome analysis of Zhonghuang 2 and Longjing 43 under control and shading treatment. Nineteen CsGSTs with relatively high expression levels in buds were used for sequence and phylogenetic tree analysis. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to analyze the expression patterns of 8 candidate genes in different leaf positions of Longjing 43. The results showed that CsGSTs were expressed in all tested leaves, but exhibited different expression patterns. CsGST20 showed an increasing expression from a bud with a leaf to the sixth leaf, suggesting a potential role in stress resistance. On the other hand, the expression level of CsGST24 dropped significantly, suggesting that CsGST24 might participate in anthocyanin accumulation in tea plants.
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    Activity Changes in Several Extracellular Enzymes of Eurotium cristatum Fungi During its Growth Period
    CHEN Gui-mei, DENG Yong-liang, HUANG Ya-ya, ZHANG Yue, JI Xiao-ming, ZHOU Xing-chang, HU Xin
    Journal of Tea Science    2013, 33 (4): 306-310.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2013.04.003
    Abstract123)      PDF(pc) (521KB)(114)       Save
    In order to explore extra-cellular enzyme secreted by Eurotium cristatum fungi, the enzymatic productivity and activity changes on carboxymethyl cellulase(CMCase), proteinase, amylase, pectinase and lipase were analyzed according to the methods of hydrolyzed circle and liquid cultivation. The results showed that there were obvious hydrolyzed circles appearsed on the plate medium with starch and olive oil, but not on plate medium with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, pectin and milk. Except lipase, other enzymes were detected and their activities were varied obviously during liquid cultivation.
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    Research Progress of The Preventing Effects of Tea on Aging and Aged-related Pathologies
    DAI Shen, LU Yan, YU Penghui, GONG Yushun, LIU Zhonghua
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (1): 23-33.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.01.003
    Abstract159)      PDF(pc) (684KB)(112)       Save
    In this paper, the anti-aging effects of tea in model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila flies and mice were reviewed. The main functional components (tea polyphenols, theanine and caffeine) were especially emphasized. The beneficial functions of tea in preventing age-related diseases were summarized. Furthermore, the latest research on its mechanism of regulating the nutrient-sensing signaling networks was expounded. Finally, the future research direction was briefly discussed.
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    Effects of Tea Polysaccharide on the Texture Characteristics of Amylose and Amylopectin
    LIANG Qin, GUO Li, DU Xian-feng
    Journal of Tea Science    2011, 31 (6): 473-478.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2011.06.001
    Abstract107)      PDF(pc) (561KB)(112)       Save
    Compatibility between the two kinds of polymer: amylose and amylopectin has a derect relation with the texture of starchy foods, and the texture will directly influence the processability, morphological structure, storability and edible characteristic of the starchy foods. This article studies the texture characteristics of mixture of tea polysaccharide, amylose and amylopectin at different mixing ratios, the result shows that the quantity of tea polysaccharide have a significant effect on the firmness, consistence, cohesiveness and index of viscosity of amylose, amylopectin and their mixtures.
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    Cited: Baidu(1)
    Effect of Raw Material Processing Technology on Processing Characteristic of the Green Tea Beverage
    YIN Jun-feng, LIN Zhi, TAN Jun-feng, YUAN Hai-bo, YU Guang-bing
    Journal of Tea Science    2005, 25 (3): 189-196.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2005.03.006
    Abstract105)      PDF(pc) (332KB)(111)       Save
    Different raw materials made by different tender degree and processing technique was adopted to process green-tea beverage. The quality characteristic of beverage and the adaptability of different raw materials are studied by analyzing the dynamic changes of tea polyphenols, caffeine, amino acid, catechins, the chromaticity, the evaluation of organoleptic quality of tea beverage and a series of destructiveness experiment. A processing of raw materials which was suitable for green tea beverage was putted forward.
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    Cited: Baidu(7)
    Study on the Variation of Important Functional Compositon in the Tea Seeds on its Maturation Period
    ZHENG De-yong, CHANG Yu-xi, YE Nai-xing, YANG Jiang-fan
    Journal of Tea Science    2013, 33 (3): 253-260.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2013.03.012
    Abstract70)      PDF(pc) (655KB)(111)       Save
    The variation of important functional composition in the tea seeds, including the oil content, fatty acid composition of tea seeds oil, the content of vitamin E and squalene in tea seeds oil were studied by GC and HPLC on its maturation period. The tea seed samples come from 4 tea germplasms: Fuding dabaicha, Fuyun No.6, Huangdan and Rougui. The results showed that, the nutrients accumulated, the moisture content decreased and the oil content increased on the tea seed maturation process. The oil content increased more rapid at the earlier maturation stage, then slowed down at the later stage and reached a maximum value, the average seed oil content of these 4 germplasm was 24.24%. The vitamin E content in the tea seeds oil increased by the ‘dual wave peak’ pattern, and then increased fast at later stage to a maximum value, the vitamin E content of Fuyun 6 reached 1β060.29βμg/g. The squalene content of tea seeds oil increased at earlier maturation stage, decreased at later stage, the Rougui’s squalene content was 161.42 μg/g. The palmitic acid relative content in tea seeds oil decreased slowly, and the relative content of stearic acid in tea seeds oil increased slowly on the tea seeds maturation. The oleinic acid relative content in tea seeds oil increased firstly, decreased at medium stage, and then increased continually to the end. The oleinic acid relative content in matured tea seeds oil of Fuding dabaicha, Fuyun No. 6, Huangdan and Rougui was 50.43%、45.98%、52.62% and 52.98% respectively. The linoleic acid relative content in tea seeds oil decreased firstly, increased at medium stage, and then decreased continuing to the end. The linoleic acid relative content in matured tea seeds oil of Fuding dabaicha, Fuyun No.6, Huangdan and Rougui was 31.65%、27.36%、24.66% and 24.07% respectively.
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    Cited: Baidu(1)
    An Empirical Study on the Impact Factors of Adoption of Green Prevention and Control Technology by Tea-growers
    HU Linying, DU Pei, CHEN Fuqiao, JIANG Aiqin, JIANG Renhua, LU Chengyin
    Journal of Tea Science    2017, 37 (3): 308-314.  
    Abstract93)      PDF(pc) (856KB)(111)       Save
    Survey data were collected from 2β210 tea-growers from sixteen major tea producing provinces and then the Logit model was established to analyze the imfact factors of Green Prevention and Control Technology (GPCT) adoption by tea-growers. The results showed that GPCT adoption by tea-growers was affected by personality variables, family characteristics, operating characteristics of tea plantation, organizational and technical service characteristics. The most effective factor was organizational and technical service characteristics. Concretely, the farmer’s age, household size, cultivated area had significantly negative effects on technology adoption. The knowledge of the pesticide residues’ limitation standard (PRLS), household income, the connection with cooperation, pest control training frequency and communication with others had positive effects on technology adoption. The technology adoption rate of tea-growers who knew the PRLS was about 2 times higher than the rest. An increase of household income by ten thousand yuan could increase the technology adoption rate by 2%. Cooperative members’ technology adoption rate was 1.73 times higher than non-members. Every training of farmers could promote technology adoption rate by 1.50 times. However, the farmers’ educational status, non-agricultural income didn’t significantly affect their choices. Therefore, the related government department should improve farmers’ organization, increase training times and cut down the cost of technology adoption to promote GPCT adoption to achieve green agriculture.
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    Journal of Tea Science    2002, 22 (02): 98-104.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2002.02.002
    Abstract62)      PDF(pc) (419KB)(111)       Save
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    Optimization of Aroma Extraction and Aroma Component Analysis on Chestnut-like Green Tea
    YIN Hongxu, YANG Yanqin, YAO Yuefeng, ZHANG Mingming, WANG Jiaqin, JIANG Yongwen, YUAN Haibo
    Journal of Tea Science    2018, 38 (5): 518-526.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.05.009
    Abstract147)      PDF(pc) (911KB)(110)       Save
    Fourteen green tea samples with typical chestnut-like aroma and 2 samples with sweet aroma were used as materials and the optimal conditions including the type of extraction fiber, the extraction time, the extraction temperature and electrolyte concentration were selected by comparing the extraction effect of different conditions. The optimal conditions for preparing aroma of chestnut-like green tea were explored and the characteristic peak analysis of chestnut-like green tea was carried out. Results indicated that the optimal extraction conditions of chestnut-like green tea were as follows: extraction fiber DVB/CAR/PDMS, extraction temperature at 50℃, extraction for 50βmin, electrolyte concentration of 1-3βmg·L-1. under this condition, 171 volatile compounds were detected and 30 peaks were identified as common characteristic peaks of chestnut-like green tea, including 5 alcohols, 4 alkenes, 7 alkanes. the RSDs of the relative peak areas were ≤5.0%, which showed a high repeatability. The similarity analysis of angle cosine method and correlation coefficient method proved that the characteristic peaks could well explain their contribution to chestnut-like fragrant.
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    Study on Scientific Input-output Efficiency of Tea Research Institute in China during the Year of 2006~2010
    YANG Zhen-wei, YANG Ya-jun
    Journal of Tea Science    2011, 31 (6): 561-566.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2011.06.007
    Abstract95)      PDF(pc) (630KB)(110)       Save
    The scientific input-output efficiency of ten Tea Research Institutes at or above provincial level in China was investigated by using DEA method during the year of 2006~2010. The result showed that institutes’ input & output efficiency keep well in total, but not 100% is efficient. Nine institutes were effective, and their scale and resources allocation level was in good situation. One institute was PE invalid and in scale decrease stage, it needs to strengthened scientific research management and improved resource allocative efficiency, to increase output and make DEA efficient. The correlation between input item and output item was investigated. The results showed that all outputs items correlate positively with the input items of fund and staff, while not positively with per capita fund.
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    Effect of Withering and Fermentation Duration on Aroma and Qualities in Guangdong Danxia Black Tea
    WANG Qiushuang, LING Caijin, QIAO Xiaoyan, CHEN Dong, CAO Junxi, WU Hualing
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (3): 342-354.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.03.012
    Abstract217)      PDF(pc) (498KB)(109)    PDF(mobile) (498KB)(15)    Save
    To identify the optimal parameters for processing Guangdong Danxia 2 black tea, Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) combined with GC-MS (HS-SPME/GC-MS) and HPLC, etc. methods were used to analyze the effects of withering and fermentation duration on the aroma and quality of black teas. The results show that with the increase of withering time, the contents of alcohols increased significantly, which induced the release of flowery and fruit like aroma. The aldehydes decreased and the grass like aroma weakened. The contents of tea polyphenols and catechins decreased significantly after withering for 33 h. The water extracts increased and the total amino acids decreased. The results show that black tea had the best index and sensory qualities when withering for 33 h. With the increase of fermentation duration, the contents of alcohols showed the tendency of decreasing-no changes-decreasing significantly. The changes of esters were not obvious. The acids increased when fermentation duration increased. Amino acids decreased significantly after 12 h fermentation. The contents of tea polyphenols and water extracts also decreased, but showed significant difference after 12 h. The research concluded that the best fermentation duration was 12 h for Danxia 2 black tea, with the best quality and sensory test result. The black tea had sour taste when fermented for more than 12 h.
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    Determination of 2,4-Epibrassinolide in Different Teas by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Tandem Mass Spectrometry with Dispersive Solid Phase Extraction
    ZHU Li, CHEN Hongping, CHAI Yunfeng, MA Guicen, HAO Zhenxia, WANG Chen, LIU Xin, LU Chengyin
    Journal of Tea Science    2018, 38 (6): 589-594.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.06.005
    Abstract88)      PDF(pc) (767KB)(108)       Save
    An efficient method for analyzing 2,4-Epibrassinolide in different teas was developed based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Homogenized samples were extracted with acetonitrile solution, cleaned up with three sorbents including C18, strong anion exchanger (SAX) and graphitized carbon black (GCB). The compound was separated on a HSS T3 column using electrospray Ionization (ESI) mode, detected by scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (SMRM) and quantified by matrix-matched external standard curves. The compound showed good linearity between the concentration of 0.8-800βμg·L-1, with high significant correlation (R2>0.999). The limit of quantitation (LOQ, S/N=10) ranged from 0.55 to 1.46βμg·kg-1. In addition, the spiked (20, 40, 200βμg·kg-1) recoveries of tea samples were 75.5%-93.6%, and RSDs were 0.4%-7.0%. The method was accurately and sensitively applied to commercial tea samples, which fulfilled all requirement for the determination of 2,4-Epibrassinolide in tea samples.
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    Progress on Tea Classification and Discussion on Liupu Tea’s Attribution
    WU Ping
    Journal of Tea Science    2014, 34 (4): 408-416.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2014.04.014
    Abstract104)      PDF(pc) (659KB)(108)       Save
    By describing the theory and method of tea classification in China and foreign countries, and the special manufacturing technology and the quality characteristic of dark tea, it was regarded that whatever the semi-finished or the finished tea of Liupu tea, both of them were under the process of pilling up and color changing and according with the theory of tea classification, and the related standard and regulation, so could be called as dark tea, according to the investigation on the method of piling up and color changing in the various manufacturing stages of processing process of Liupu tea, the major factors influencing the piling up and color changing and the sensory quality characteristics of semi-finished tea and finished tea. However, the finished tea have received two times of piling up and color changing processes in comparing with the semi-finished tea.
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    Identification and Expression Analysis of Calcium-dependent Protein Kinase CsCDPK17 in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)
    LEI Lei, WANG Lu, YAO Lina, HAO Xinyuan, ZENG Jianming, DING Changqing, WANG Xinchao, YANG Yajun
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (3): 267-279.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.03.004
    Abstract233)      PDF(pc) (2055KB)(107)    PDF(mobile) (2055KB)(8)    Save
    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs or CPKs) are important calcium sensors in higher plants, which are extensively involved in plant development and stress responding. In this study, one sequence that contained a complete ORF of 1 611 bp encoding a 568 amino acids protein was cloned from Camellia sinensis cv. Longjing 43. Sequence alignments revealed that this protein was a typical plant CDPK possesses N-terminus myristoylation site and protein kinases domain and showed the highest similarity with Arabidopsis AtCDPK17. Thus, the gene was defined as CsCDPK17 base on further phylogenetic analysis (Genbank accession No. MK238482). Basic protein character analysis shows that CsCDPK17 was a hydrophilic membrane-binding protein with molecularweight of 59.9 kD and PI of 5.43. Further subcellular localization assay using transient CsCDPK17-GFP expression in rice protoplasts and tobacco leaves proved that CsCDPK17 was localized in plasma membrane and nucleus. A series of gene transcription, light and hormone (such as ABA, SA, MeJA, etc) responding related cis-elements were detected in CsCDPK17 2 000 bp promoter regions. Tissue-specific expression analysis found that high expressions of CsCDPK17 were in the mature leaves and seeds, while the lowest transcription in roots. The transcription of CsCDPK17 was increased during cold acclimation and decreased during de-acclimation procedures in four cultivars with different cold resistance abilities. Moreover, stress induced expression indicated that CsCDPK17 could be induced by cold, drought and osmotic stresses with the highest induction levels of 5.1, 2.3 and 2.4 folds, respectively. Overall, our results suggest that the newly cloned CsCDPK17 might be involve in the regulation of both development and abiotic stress responses (such as cold, drought and osmotic stress) in tea plants.
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    Analysis of Fatty Acid Compositions and Contents in Oolong Tea from Fujian Province
    GUO Li, LYU Haipeng, CHEN Mingjie, ZHANG Yue, BA Yichen, GUO Yaling, LIN Zhi
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (5): 611-618.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.05.013
    Abstract266)      PDF(pc) (293KB)(107)       Save
    Fatty acids (FAs) are the key precursors for aroma formation of Oolong tea. Eighteen Minbei Oolong tea cultivars (raw and re-baked tea), and three Minnan Oolong tea cultivars with faint scent were selected as the experiment materials. The fatty acid methyl esters were prepared by the method of sulfuric acid-methanol and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that 11 fatty acids were detected in the Oolong teas from Fujian province, and 16C- and 18C- fatty acids were the most abundant. The total fatty acid contents and unsaturation degree from Minbei Oolong teas were lower than those of Minnan Oolong teas. The contents of nine FAs including C16:0, C18:2, C18:3, and so on, showed significant variation among different cultivars, and Queshe showed the highest C18:3 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUSFAs). The effect of re-baking on fatty acids in Minbei Oolong tea was related with their number of carbon atoms and unsaturation. Docosanoic acid and tetracosanoic acid degraded completely, and C18:3 content decreased more than others during re-baking process. Thus, FA contents and compositions were affected by locations, cultivars and processing technology.
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    Systematic Separation, Purification of Water-soluble Green Tea Polysaccharides and Their Immunological Activities
    KOU Xiao-hong, JIANG He-yuan, CUI Hong-chun, ZHANG Jian-yong, GAO Qing-qing, YUAN Xin-yue, SHU Ai-min, LIU Xiao-hui, GAO Qi
    Journal of Tea Science    2008, 28 (3): 172-180.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2008.03.011
    Abstract81)      PDF(pc) (341KB)(107)       Save
    Water-soluble green tea polysaccharides were separated and purified by Ultrafiltration membranes with pore diameter of 150 kD, 20 kD, 6 kD in turn. All the three fractions were further separated and purified by DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography and Sephacryl S-300 column chromatography, and more than 20 green tea polysaccharide components totally were obtained. Their purity and molecular weight distribution were determined with high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) equipped with ELSD detector, and five components of homogeneous polysaccharide were obtained. The immunological activities of these green tea polysaccharides were determined by stimulated phagocytosis and nitric oxide production on RAW264.7 macrophage cell line of mice. Results showed that the tea Polysaccharides with 20 kD MW possessed significant immunological activities on NO production or phagocytosis of mice macrophage Raw 264.7 cells.
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    Cited: Baidu(31)
    Study on the Extracting Method of Kuding Tea by Adding Exogenous Enzymes
    WANG Deng-liang, WANG Ying-feng, YAN Yu-qin
    Journal of Tea Science    2004, 24 (4): 295-301.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2004.04.013
    Abstract75)      PDF(pc) (46KB)(106)       Save
    The addition of exogenous enzymes(cellulase, pectinase and papain)during the extraction of Kuding tea was investigated. The changes in the contents of the chemical component in the Kuding tea extracts and the comparison of single enzyme and the combination of exogenous enzymes were analyzed. Results showed that the optimum condition for extracting Kuding tea was as follows: 40βmin, 50℃, pH 5.5 and the addition of 0.2% cellulase.
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    Journal of Tea Science    2003, 23 (1): 79-81.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2003.01.019
    Abstract52)      PDF(pc) (331KB)(106)       Save
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    Fauna of Tea Fulgora and the Major Species in China
    ZHANG Han-gu
    Journal of Tea Science    2004, 24 (4): 240-242.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2004.04.003
    Abstract90)      PDF(pc) (87KB)(105)       Save
    There were more than 20 species of fulgora recorded in tea areas of China. They belonged to 6 families of Fulgoroidea. Most of them belonged to Flalidae and Ricaniidae, including several harmful species.
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    Cited: Baidu(15)
    Study on the Toxicology of a Preparation of Tea-polyphenols and American Ginseng
    SUN Pei-pei, WANG Yue-fei, ZHANG Xing-hai, HU Liu-hong, YANG Xian-qiang
    Journal of Tea Science    2008, 28 (6): 450-454.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2008.06.010
    Abstract72)      PDF(pc) (527KB)(105)       Save
    The edible safety of the compound of Tea-polyphenols and American ginseng was investigated according to “the Standard of Health Food Test and Assesment”. Acute toxicity test in mice showed that LD50 was higher than 10.0 g/kg.Bw, all three genetic tests showed negative results, 30 days feeding test showed that the physical appearance, behaviors, weights, organ coefficients, the indexes of hematology and biochemistry in rats have no significant difference comparing with the control group, also, no significant external appearance and pathological changes of various organs including liver, heart, spleen, kidney, stomach, intestines, testicle, and ovary were discovered. All results suggested that the compound has no acute toxicity, no genotoxicity, and high in edible safety.
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    Cited: Baidu(4)
    Preliminary Application of ISSR Markers in the Genetic Relationship Analysis of Tea Plants
    LIN Zheng-he, CHEN Rong-bing, CHEN Chang-song, LIN Jin-ke, HAO Zhi-long, GAO Shui-lian, CHEN Lian-cheng
    Journal of Tea Science    2007, 27 (1): 45-50.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2007.01.007
    Abstract63)      PDF(pc) (498KB)(105)       Save
    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) is a kind of effective molecular marker developed on the basis of microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR). ISSR markers were applied to detect the relationship of the thirty-nine cultivars of tea plants. Fifteen primers, selected from fourty primers, were used to amplify the tea samples one hundred and fourty-three DNA bands were amplified, of which one hundred and thirty-one bands were polymorphic.The percentage of polymorphic bands was 91.6%.By cluster analysis based on ISSR markers using UPGMA,the genetic similarity was from 0.21 to 0.95. The GS was the greatest between Manqilan and Zhuyeqilan, and they had the highest genetic similarity and the smallest genetic distance.The GS between Chongqinpipacha and Yinghong 1 was the smallest and they had the lowest genetic similarity and the greatest genetic difference. Cluster analysis classified the 39 cultivars into 3 major groups (GS=0.20). Chongqinpipacha and Yinghong 1 fell into one group, belong to primitive form Jiulongzhu and Huanglong also fell into one group. The rest formed the third group. The results suggest that ISSR is a useful tool for molecular genetic diversity and relationship analysis of tea cultivars.
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    The Inhibitory Role and Mechanism of White Tea Extracts on Pulmonary Fibrosis Induced by Nano-sized SiO2 in Rats
    PARK Soomi, KIM Eunhye, CHEN Xinghua, WANG Qianchao, HE Puming, TU Youying
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (2): 157-164.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.02.002
    Abstract115)      PDF(pc) (5033KB)(105)       Save
    Fifty-four Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: control group, model group, white silver needle extract group, high and low dose white peony extracts and EGCG group, with 9 rats in each group. The other five groups except the control group were treated with nano-sized SiO2 dust (80 mg·mL-1) by non-exposed endotracheal intubation. After two weeks of intragastric administration, the contents of hydroxyproline(HYP), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the morphological changes of lung tissues were detected. The results show that compared with the model group, the pathological changes of each white tea extract treatment group and EGCG group were alleviated in varying degrees, and the effect of white silver needle extract group was the best. The content of NO and inflammatory factor IL-6 in lung of rats treated with white tea extract and EGCG were significantly lower than those of model group (P<0.05), GSH-Px activity was higher than that of model group (P<0.05). High-dose white peony extract group had the best effect on reducing NO content and increasing GSH-Px activity. This study shows that white tea extract had a significant effect on oxidative stress injury of lung fibrosis induced by nano-sized SiO2 in rats. The slow and repairing effects are mainly related to the antioxidant effect and the inhibition of inflammatory reaction.
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    Study on the Quality of Five Huangjincha Related Cultivars
    CHEN Yuhong, HUANG Feiyi, LEI Yu, DUAN Jihua, DING Ding, KANG Yanka, LUO Yi, LIU Panpan, LI Saijun, GONG Ziming
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (3): 309-317.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.03.008
    Abstract386)      PDF(pc) (404KB)(105)    PDF(mobile) (404KB)(10)    Save
    The variations of main biochemical components and green tea qualities of five cultivars including Huangjincha population cultivar, Baojing Huangjincha 1, Huangjincha 2, Huangjincha 8 and Huangjincha 168 were studied by physical and chemical inspection and sensory testing. The results showed that tea samples of all cultivars contained abundant quantities of water extract, tea polyphenol, amino acids, caffeine and catechins ranging from 36.42% to 40.17%, 20.79% to 29.89%, 3.03% to 6.31%, 3.82% to 4.57%, and 8.31% to 14.90%. A total of 47, 30, 40, 43 and 46 aroma constituents were identified in the Huangjincha population cultivar, Baojing Huangjincha 1, Huangjincha 2, Huangjincha 8 and Huangjincha 168, respectively, which included 18 common components with the major aroma compound alcohols. The results of the sensory evaluation showed that five cultivars such as Huangjincha population cultivar are suitable for the production of excellent green tea.
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    Research on Screening and Identification of Ammonifying Bacterium and Characteristic of Strains from the Soils of Tea Garden
    HAN Xiao-yang, LI Zhi, WANG Qiang-qiang, ZHANG Li-xia
    Journal of Tea Science    2013, 33 (1): 91-98.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2013.01.012
    Abstract78)      PDF(pc) (730KB)(105)       Save
    By the experimental procedure of enrichment culture and microbial purification, 33 ammonifying bacterial strains were screened from the soil of tea garden in Shandong province. According to the activity comparison and taxonomy of strains, three different species of high activity strains were selected. The strain SNT3 was preliminary identified as Bacillus, SNT6 as Exiguobacterium and SNT33 as Acinetobacter on the basis of the characteristics of strain’s morphological characteristics, physiological&biochemistry and 16βS rDNA sequencing method. Meanwhile, the effects of growth environment and removal ability of organic nitrogen of the strains were measured . The results showed that the optimum pH for SNT3, SNT6, SNT33 is 5.0~8.5, 6.0~8.5, 5.0~7 respectively; the optimum temperature of three strains were 35℃, the capacity of organic nitrogen removing of the SNT3 was better than SNT6 and SNT33.
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    A Comparative Study of Different Polarity Chromatographic Column in Analysis of Aroma Components in Black Tea
    QIAO Yang, DU Liping, XIAO Dongguang
    Journal of Tea Science    2016, 36 (1): 38-44.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2016.01.005
    Abstract110)      PDF(pc) (897KB)(104)       Save
    The aroma components in black tea were extracted and analyzed by headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) coupled with capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Two different polarity chromatographic columns were used for the separation of the aroma components in black tea. The result of semi-standard non-polar chromatographic column HP-5MS and standard polar chromatographic column CP-Wax were compared by analysis. The results indicated that the separation effect of two different polarity chromatographic column are satisfactory, and there are some differences between the analysis results. Therefore, in the analysis of different aroma components in black tea, we should select suitable chromatographic columns according to the various analytes.
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    Cited: Baidu(1)
    Research of FUZHUAN Tea’s Therapy for Hyperlipidemia by High-Throughput Screening
    FU Dong-he, LIU Zhong-hua, HUANG Jianan, GONG Yu-shun, CHEN Jin-hua
    Journal of Tea Science    2006, 26 (3): 209-214.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2006.03.011
    Abstract123)      PDF(pc) (340KB)(104)       Save
    Searching high effective and natural medicines for therapy for hyperlipidemia is one of the focus of research. High-Throughput Screening is a kind of new technique of medicine screening. The water extractions of FUZHUAN Tea were extracted by chloroform, ethyl acetate, 1-butanol separately. The samples were used to test their function of adjusting fat metabolism of FUZHUAN Tea by the models of PPARα, PPARγ, PPARδ, LXR, FXR and 3T3-L1 of High-Throughput Screening. The results showed that FUZHUAN Tea could activate PPARγ, PPARδ and restrain FXR. Its effect to PPRAα and 3T3-L1 was not obvious. FUZHUAN Tea was effective in therapy for hyperlipidemia. The active components need to be separated later.
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    Re-analysis of the Phenomena and Causation of Flourishing Tea Culture in Tang Dynasty
    JIA Yue-qian, BAO Gong-min, ZHU Jian-qing
    Journal of Tea Science    2009, 29 (1): 72-78.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2009.1.012
    Abstract99)      PDF(pc) (250KB)(104)       Save
    The paper re-analyzes the phenomena and causation of flourishing tea culture in Tang dynasty in China, which would help to clarify amphibolous view whether tea culture was first flourishing in Tang dynasty (A.D. 608~907) or North Song dynasty (A.D. 960~1127). The authors point out that Tang dynasty is a landmark time in the formation of tea culture and set the base tone of the subsequent development of tea culture. The paper lists six initial phenomena of flourishing tea culture in Tang dynasty and indicates six possible causations.
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    Cited: Baidu(2)
    Studies on the Biology of the Egg Parasitoids of Tea Leafhopper, Empoasca vitis (Göthe)
    LI Hui-ling, LIN Nai-quan
    Journal of Tea Science    2008, 28 (6): 407-413.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2008.06.004
    Abstract64)      PDF(pc) (527KB)(104)       Save
    Investigations on the egg parasitoids of tea leafhopper, Empoasca vitis (Göthe), were conducted both at tea plantations and in laboratory of Fujian Agriculture & Forestry University, Fuzhou. Two dominant egg parasitoids, Stethynium empoasca Subba Rao and Schizophragma parvulas Ogloblin, in Mymaridae have been found in Fujian tea plantations. Studies on the biology showed that the adult activity, longevity and oviposition of the two mymarids were significantly affected by temperature and light. These two mymarids can reproduce in both ways of amphigony and arrhenotoky. Under 25℃ condition, the lifecycle from egg to adult emergence lasted for about 21.40±0.26 days. After 10% honey water solution was supplied as supplementary nutrition, the female longevity could be proplonged significantly. The average reproductive capacity in Schizophragma parvulas (about 36.83±0.81 eggs per female) was much more than which in Stethynium empoasca (about 22.33±0.48 eggs per female). The photomicrographs for general morphological characteristics of the two mymarids from egg to adult were provided as well.
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    Study on the Moderate Scale of Tea Family Farm—Based on the Survey Data of Anhui Province
    FU Lei, SUN Tong, XIA Tao, WEN Xiaomeng
    Journal of Tea Science    2018, 38 (6): 643-651.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.06.011
    Abstract152)      PDF(pc) (825KB)(103)       Save
    Based on the scientific definition of tea family farm, the DEA model was used to analyze the operational efficiency of 100 tea family farms in Lu'an, Anhui Province. Further, the evaluating system of the moderate scale of tea family farm was constructed by AHP, and the scale questions of the tea family farm were discussed. The results showed that 16 out of 100 tea family farms were in the effective stage of scale, and the comprehensive effectiveness of 2-2.667βhm2 were much higher than 0-0.667βhm2 and 6.667βhm2 or above. Therefore, the moderate scale of the tea family farm in the main tea producing areas of Anhui Province was 2-2.667βhm2. Based on this, a number of suggestions to improve the land circulation system, train new tea family farmers, carry out a variety of forms of training, improve the service system of agricultural socialization and improve the support policy were proposed.
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    Study on the Impact of Caffeine and BSA on the Formation of TFDG by the Chemical Oxidation of EGCG and ECG
    ZHANG Jian-yong, JIANG He-yuan, JIANG Yong-wen
    Journal of Tea Science    2007, 27 (3): 185-191.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2007.03.003
    Abstract98)      PDF(pc) (480KB)(102)       Save
    The impact of caffeine(CAF) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the formation of theaflavin-3,3’-digallate was compared and analyzed. The results on chemical oxidation showed that CAF and BSA had obvious inhibitory action on the formation of Theaflavin-3,3’-digallate. Under identical condition, BSA showed the same inhibitory action as CAF. When BSA and CAF were existing in the same chemical oxidation system, the complicated competition and cooperation were investigated.
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    Cited: Baidu(6)
    Research on Fast Measurement of Green Tea Polyphenols Content Based on the Electrochemistry Method
    ZHU Dan, XU Hai-rong, Martial Geiser, Mario Bernabei, Wilfried Andlauer
    Journal of Tea Science    2011, 31 (3): 179-186.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2011.03.004
    Abstract102)      PDF(pc) (557KB)(101)       Save
    The possibility of electrochemistry-cyclic voltammetry (CV) method applied on the fast measurement of green tea polyphenols content was investigated. Three kinds of working electrodes, silver electrode, carbon paste electrode and glassy carbon electrode, were designed and self-made for that purpose. The results showed that the silver electrode was not suitable for the content determination. A linear relationship between the anodic current and the polyphenols concentration was obtained using the carbon paste electrode or the glassy carbon electrode. Test results of green tea samples indicated that the repeatability and accuracy of the glassy carbon electrode were better than the carbon paste electrode. Compared with the national standard method, the electrochemistry method costs much less time. This research confirmed the feasibility of this method and gave a new idea to develop a fast, simple and low-cost way to detect polyphenols in tea.
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    Aroma Profiling of Oolong Tea by SDE and HS-SPME in Combination with GC-MS
    CHEN Lin, YU Wenquan, ZHANG Yinggen, XIANG Lihui, WANG Lili, YOU Zhiming
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (6): 692-704.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.06.008
    Abstract162)      PDF(pc) (781KB)(100)       Save
    To better understand the aroma characteristics of oolong tea, the volatile compounds of three representative Fujian oolong tea samples (Tieguanyin, Rougui and Shuixian) were isolated by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and head space solids-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with three different fiber coatings, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 262 aroma components were detected by different extraction methods. The number of aroma components detected from high to low was 204 (Rougui), 175 (Shuixian), and 120 (Tieguanyin), respectively. HS-SPME with dry samples were detected with 186 aroma components, followed by HS-SPME with wet samples (139), and SDE method detected 33 aroma components. Different extraction methods can complement each other on the detection of aroma components. A 65βμm PDMS/DVB (Polydimethylsiloxane/Divinylbenzene) fiber showed good reproducibility, and some common or characteristic aroma components in oolong tea samples were robustly detected, such as nerolidol, indole, alpha-farnesene, phenylethyl alcohol, benzyl nitrile, methyl salicylate, etc. Compared with Tieguanyin, Rougui and Shuixian had higher number of aroma components, and the aroma compositions of Rougui were the most complex. These results were in consistent with the sensory evaluation of oolong tea produced from north and south of Fujian province, and Rougui showed higher aroma quality than that of Shuixian.
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    Design and Experiment of Tea Far Infrared Dryer Based on DMC-PID Cascade Control
    LI Bing, SUN Changying, LI Weining, SONG Yangyang
    Journal of Tea Science    2018, 38 (4): 410-415.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.04.009
    Abstract171)      PDF(pc) (870KB)(100)       Save
    According to the characteristics of delay, inertia and nonlinearity in the baking of tea materials, the low accuracy of temperature control, large overshoot and poor robustness of traditional PID control largely limited relative application. A tea drying machine was designed based on DMC-PID control in this paper. The drying machine adopted multi-layer tunnel with the infrared radiation plate heating element above the conveyor belt. The DMC-PID cascade temperature control system was also used. The first DMC algorithm improved the robustness and capability of the dynamic temperature control system and the second PID algorithm improved the anti-jamming performance simultaneously. The green tea baking experiment on the prototype was carried out. The results showed that when the PID temperature control system was adopted, the overshoot of the dryer became 10.5%. When the DMC PID cascade temperature control was used,the overshoot was 5.9%. DMC-PID control could improve the temperature control precision and tea quality of the tea dryer.
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    Effect of Different Drying Technologies during Raw Tea Processing on the Quality of Green Tea Beverage
    YUAN Haibo, HUA Jinjie, DENG Yuliang, LI Jia, DONG Chunwang, YANG Yanqin, WANG Jinjin, HUANG Yinquan, YIN Junfeng, JIANG Yongwen
    Journal of Tea Science    2017, 37 (6): 631-637.  
    Abstract129)      PDF(pc) (340KB)(100)       Save
    To explore the appropriate drying technology during raw tea processing, leaching behaviors and quality stabilities of tea samples prepared from raw materials dried by different methods or degree of drying were compared. The results revealed that (1) Raw tea dried by frying showed the highest contents of tea polyphenols when processed under low temperature, whereas those dried by baking-frying, or baking-frying-backing showed the highest contents of tea polyphenols when processed under high temperature. (2) In respect of color stability, tea soup prepared from baking-dried tea showed significantly elevated L value after sterilization or during storage, with the average L value increased by 2.035-3.905. Meanwhile tea soup prepared from baking-dried tea also showed higher anti-discoloration, with a/b value during low-temperature storage increased by 19.5%. (3) In respect to sensory flavor, most tea soups showed yellow-green color and ripe aroma while tea samples processed by baking-drying remained green, bright and fresh without any ripe taste. Besides, tea samples processed by baking-drying also showed superior flavor stability during storage irrespective of temperatures. In conclusion, baking approach during raw tea process was proposed with the optimized drying content between 5%-6%.
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    Pharmacokinetics and Bioavailability of Catechin Liposome in Rabbits
    SUN Zhi-liang, Liu Xiang-xin, Ling Qin-lu, Liu Zi-kui, Liu jin-fei, He Xiang rong
    Journal of Tea Science    2004, 24 (1): 44-48.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2004.01.009
    Abstract91)      PDF(pc) (299KB)(99)       Save
    Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of Catechin Liposome were studied in 10 healthy rabbits following single intravenous (25mg/kg) and oral administration (25mg/kg)of the drug. Plasma concentrations of. Catechin Liposome were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The concentration-time data were fitted to a two-compartment model following a single intravenous injection in rabbits. The main pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: distribution half-life (t1/2α) (0.18±0.01)h,elimination half-life (t1/2β) (1.52±0.08)h,apparent distribution volume (Vd) (4.48±0.24)L total body clearance (ClB) (2.05±0.07)L/h,the area under curve (AUC) (29.20±1.00)mg/(L.h). The drug concentration-time data also were fitted to a one-compartment open model with first order absorption after a single oral administration Catechin Liposome. The pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: t1/2kα (0.27±0.03)h, t1/2ke(1.72±0.04)h, tmax (0.87±0.05) h, Cmax 6.53±0.62βmg/L, AUC 25.90±1.34βmg/(L.h), bioavailability F 88.60±5.73%. Pharmacokinetic characteristics of Catechin Liposome in healthy rabbits showed a rapid absorption, the time to reach Cmax is short, slow elimination, long half-life, large apparent distribution volume, and high bioavailability of oral administration. The results showed:after Catechin was prepared in liposome form, the tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics were changed significantly.
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    Cited: Baidu(9)
    Analysis on Aromatic Constituents of Fragrant Flower [Chimonathus praecox (L.)Link] in Aroma Releasing
    XIE Chao, WANG Jian-hui, GONG Zheng-li
    Journal of Tea Science    2008, 28 (4): 282-288.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2008.04.002
    Abstract82)      PDF(pc) (465KB)(99)       Save
    The change of essential oil which extracted by SDE method was studied by the gas chromatography (GC), GC/MS and evaluation methods during Lamei [Chimonathus praecox (L.) Link] blooming. The number and content of fragrant components of essential oil were changed during aroma releasing. Results showed 26, 37, 43, 49 aromatic components in Lamei were identified by GC/MS data during the following four stages (bud, early spread, spread, blooming). In compared with the unbloomed bud, the content of alkyl compounds raised 0.590, 7.152 and 13.820 times and the alkenes compounds raised 0.424, 1.078 and 4.286 times, the alcohol compounds raised 0.895, 3.324 and 5.091 times and the ester compounds raised 1.071, 2.182 and 15.101 times, respectively with the increase of opening of Lamei flower. The ketone compounds were appeared only during the later period of blooming. The content of ketone were increased steadily during the full blooming period and was 12.3 times higher than that in spreading flowerperiod. Organoleptic evaluation showed that the Lamei buds expressed a low aroma and with green grass taste, and the specific aroma was only appeared during the flower-spreading period. It is characteized that the intensity of aroma was increased from low to high with the increasing of the flower opening. On the basis of above experiments results, the trend of fragrant components’ content by GC and GC/MS method and the results from organoleptic evaluation method were similar.
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    The Historic Position of Hunan Tea Culture
    SHI Zhao-peng
    Journal of Tea Science    2005, 25 (1): 1-6.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2005.01.001
    Abstract116)      PDF(pc) (379KB)(99)       Save
    The historic position of Hunan tea culture was discussed from the historic legends, excavated culture relics and historic records. Some records in the “Tea Classic” by Luyu were texturally investigated by the author. The tea cup come from the Yue Zhou stove(one of six china stoves in Tang dynasty)was the texturally investigated and compared with the Changsha china stove of Tang dynasty. These two china stoves of Tang dynasty in Hunan province created ceramic glaze and decoration which had great scientific value in ancient Chinese china field. Besides, the history of Jun-shan and Bai he-lin tea mentioned in the “Tang State history” was discussed by the author also. The relationship of tea and Zen which has long controversy in tea field was discussed in the paper and agrees with the idea that the original place is the Xia Shan temple of Shi Men in Hunan province written by Yuang Wu Ke Qing in Song dynasty. The important historic role of dark tea in Hunan province in the union of all ethic groups and in the tea economy was put forward by the author.
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    Cited: Baidu(5)
    Studies on Preparing Theaflavins from Oxidation of Tea Catechins in Vitro
    WANG Kun-bo, LIU Zhong-hua, HUANG Jian-an
    Journal of Tea Science    2004, 24 (1): 53-59.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2004.01.011
    Abstract98)      PDF(pc) (362KB)(98)       Save
    Preparaing theaflavins from the oxidation of tea catechins in vitro simulated fermentation were studies. Two ways of preparing theaflavins was compared. Results of enzymatic oxidation showed that the highest content of theaflavins (15.05%) was formed at 80 minutes fermentation with polyphenol oxidase. Results of chemical oxidation also showed that the optimum condition for the formation of theaflavins is using the catechins from large-leaf tea plant on the raw material with concentration of 10βmg/ml and the ratio of oxidants in 2:3:1 (catechins:K3Fe(CN)6:NaHCO3).
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    Effects of Tea Polyphenols on Flat Peach Preservation
    ZHANG Shao-shan, YANG Xiao-ping, FAN Qiao, ZHOU Wei, LIU Qiong-qiong
    Journal of Tea Science    2009, 29 (3): 212-218.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2009.3.006
    Abstract81)      PDF(pc) (249KB)(98)       Save
    The effects of tea polyphenols (TP) on post-harvest preservation of flat peaches were studied. The results showed that TP could restrain peaches from browning and dehydration; delay the loss of soluble solids contents (SSC); postpone fruit softening and the loss of vitamin C (Vc)significantly. It could also reduce the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and regulate polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity. Therefore, TP treatment could delay aging and decay of peach and extend its storage period. An alcohol extraction liquor of tea also showed freshness-keeping effect on flat peach. The possible mechanism of the preservation effects is that TP has good antioxidation effects and can slow down oxidative damage; regulate PPO activeness and activate defense systems of flat peach.
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    Effects of Earthworm Bio-organic Fertilization Technology on Soil Microbial Characteristics and Enzyme Activities of Tea Plants
    TANG Jinchi, ZHOU Bo, LI Jianlong, TANG Hao, CAO Junxi
    Journal of Tea Science    2016, 36 (1): 45-51.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2016.01.006
    Abstract116)      PDF(pc) (685KB)(98)       Save
    Tea garden soil which had been fertilized five years was chosen for the study, and soil microbial characteristics and enzyme activities were studied. The results showed that: Earthworm bio-organic fertilization treatment (100% FBO) could significantly increase soil microbial biomass carbon, respiration rate, microbial quotient, level of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes in 0-20 cm soil level, and could significantly improve the activity of catalase, urease, invertase and alkaline phosphatases in soil (P<0.05). In 20-40 cm soil level, the indicators of microorganisms and enzyme activities under 100% FBO treatment were also higher than CK, but most of them did not reach significant level. Bio-organic fertilization technology could significantly increase the number and activity of soil microorganisms, and upgrading soil enzymes activity which was related to soil nutrient. This would help to restore or rebuild the damaged soil ecosystem of tea garden, and to enhance soil quality.
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    Cited: Baidu(1)
    Analysis on the Contents of Zhangping Shuixian Tea’s Aroma Precursors during Manufacturing Processes
    XIE Yunhai, ZHENG Deyong, YE Naixing, JIN Shan, ZENG Puyu
    Journal of Tea Science    2016, 36 (1): 11-17.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2016.01.002
    Abstract108)      PDF(pc) (733KB)(98)       Save
    The glycosidic aroma precursors of Zhangping Shuixian tea were extracted by boiling ethanol, and the aroma substances, released from the precursors by biphase enzymolysis, was analyzed by GC-MS. The aroma substance was identified by the method of the standard mass library retrieval, the mass spectrogram of standard samples, and the retention time, 6 glycosidic aroma precursors were identified from Zhangping Shuixian tea: cis-3-Hexen-1-ol, linalool, methyl salicylate, geraniol, benzyl alcohol and phenylethyl alcohol. Furthermore, the glycosidic aroma precursors of Zhangping Shuixian tea in 12 manufacturing processes were extracted and identified. The results showed that spring tea and autumn tea have the same type of glycosidic aroma precursors in tea samples from different process, but the content of each component is different. The contents of components in the autumn tea are obviously higher than that of in the spring tea, while the content of glycosidic aroma precursors in withering leaves increase significantly than that in fresh leaves after plucking, the contents of glycosidic aroma precursors changed constantly during all the period of shaking and tossing, it suggested that the dynamic balance of glycosidic synthesis and enzymolysis were existed in this process.
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    Advances on the Research of Fungi in Pu-erh Tea
    ZHAO Zhenjun, LIU Qinjin
    Journal of Tea Science    2014, 34 (3): 205-212.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2014.03.001
    Abstract98)      PDF(pc) (651KB)(98)       Save
    During the process of Pu-erh tea post-fermentation, fungal action plays an important role in forming its specific flavor and taste. This paper summarizes the fungal colonization, the effect of fungi on the quality of Pu-erh tea and also introduces the safety of fungi.
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    Cited: Baidu(3)
    Review on the Effect of Tea on Platelet Activation
    CHEN Ping, QIU Pei, CHENG Hao, ZHOU Ying, GONG Shuying
    Journal of Tea Science    2015, 35 (5): 458-464.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.05.008
    Abstract83)      PDF(pc) (592KB)(97)       Save
    Platelet activation is the basis of the incidence of many cardiovascular disease, antiplatelet drugs could block the cascade of platelet aggregation in different levels. As confirmed by clinical research and animal experiments, tea and tea ingredients can inhibit platelet aggregation. Catechins exhibit a structure-activity relationship in antiplatelet effect. This review summarized recent progress in the effect of tea and tea ingredients on platelet activity or platelet aggregation in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo, and also the effect on thrombus and coagulation system. The mechanism of anti-aggregatory effect of tea is explored, which provide further confirmation for its antithrombotic function and the preventive effect for cardiovascular disease.
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    Progress in Plant Cold-stress-responsive miRNAs and the Application in Cold Resistance Research of Camellia sinensis
    ZHU Quan-wu, FAN Kai, XIE Yan-lan, DONG Ji-fen, Zhan Yu-wen, LUO Yao-ping
    Journal of Tea Science    2013, 33 (3): 212-220.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2013.03.007
    Abstract91)      PDF(pc) (713KB)(97)       Save
    MiRNAs(MicroRNAs) negatively regulate the expression of gene by targeting mRNA for cleavage or translational repression in a sequence-complementary dependent manner. Plant miRNAs not only involved in the regulation of growth and development but also played an important role in response to cold as well as other abiotic stresses. This article described plant miRNAs biogenesis and mechanism, and analyzed the effect of miRNAs in gene regulatory networks under cold stress. The knowledge for understanding the role of cold-stress-responsive miRNAs and the new ideas for improving cold tolerance of Camellia sinensis were provided in the paper.
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    Genetic Diversity and Structure of Tea Germplasm Originated from Region of North Yangtze River Based on EST-SSR Markers
    YAO Ming-zhe, LIU Zhen, CHEN Liang, WANG Xin-chao, MA Chun-lei, LIANG Yue-rong
    Journal of Tea Science    2009, 29 (3): 243-250.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2009.3.011
    Abstract81)      PDF(pc) (281KB)(97)       Save
    The 25 pairs of EST-SSR primers were used to analyze the genetic diversity, genetic structure and genetic relationship of 45 tea accessions originated from region of north Yangtze River. Totally 83 alleles were identified, on an average of 3.3 alleles each pair of primers. The mean of polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.61. The observed heterozygosity (Ho) was averagely higher than the expected heterozygosity (He). Among 45 tea accessions the average numbers of the observed alleles were 4.2, and the number of effective alleles 2.8. The observed heterozygosity, gene diversity and Shannon information index were 0.73, 0.61 and 1.11, respectively. The low genetic difference (Gst=0.2) and high geneflow (Nm=3.9) of tea populations from Hubei, Anhui and Shaanxi were found. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that variance components inter-population and intra-population were 4.03% and 95.97% respectively. The paired similarity coefficients of 45 accessions were from 0.32 to 0.89. No clearly regional partition among 45 accessions was found from the dendrogram. The high level of genetic similarity was demonstrated among tea population of Hubei, Anhui and Shaanxi province, and Shaanxi population showed relatively distant relationship comparing to population of Hubei and Anhui.
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    The Gene Cloning and Expression Analysis of UFGT in Tea Plant [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze]
    WANG Xiao-fan, TIAN Yan-wei, WANG Yun-sheng, GAO Li-ping, XIA Tao
    Journal of Tea Science    2012, 32 (5): 411-418.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2012.05.010
    Abstract68)      PDF(pc) (701KB)(97)       Save
    A glucosyltransferase gene UDP-flavonoid 3-O-glucosyl transferase was isolated from tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] and named CsUFGT. CsUFGT has 1526bp full length with open reading frame of 1380bp which encodes 459 amino acids. The corresponding protein CsUFGT, with predicted molecular mass 49.486kDa and predicted isoelectric point 5.96, shares 59% identity and 75% similarity with UFGT(P51094.2) in Vitis vinifer. CsUFGT includes a PSPG signal motif of typical plant glucosyltransferase. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the gene expressed in all tissues of tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze], and had high expression in the fourth leaf and low expression level in root and stem.
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    Studies on the Competitive Capacity and Tactics of Chinese Tea on the Overseas Market with SWOT Method
    JIANG Han-chun, WANG Xiao-gu, ZHAO Hong-ying, JIANG Su-han
    Journal of Tea Science    2004, 24 (3): 159-165.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2004.03.003
    Abstract142)      PDF(pc) (46KB)(97)       Save
    Tea export plays a key role in Chinese tea economy. Tea has always the significance industrial value in both domestic and international markets. The export advantages and the weaknesses of Chinese tea, the opportunities and threats we are facing were analyzed by comparative principle on economy and SWOT method in this paper. The status and competitive capacity of Chinese tea in international tea markets was enunciated .The green tea and the special kinds of tea possessed competitive advantages must be developed in our country, the green marketing will be practiced, the criteria of domestic tea business will be in accordance with that of overseas ,moreover, the marketing of tea export must be unified.
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    Cited: Baidu(14)
    Preparation of the Antibody Against EupsNPV Polyhedrin and Its Utilization in Detection of the Viral Pesticide
    WANG Li-zhong, XIAO Qiang, ZHANG Chuan-xi
    Journal of Tea Science    2008, 28 (4): 260-266.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2008.04.005
    Abstract82)      PDF(pc) (451KB)(97)       Save
    The 741 bp coding region of polyhedrin gene (ph) was amplified from Euproctis pseudoconspersa nucleopolyhedrovirus(EupsNPV)genome and its prokaryotic expression vector pET-28-a-Ep-ph was constructed. Then the prokaryotic expression plasmid was transformed into Escherichia.coli. BL21(DE3)for expression. The expressed fusion protein was separated by SDS-PAGE and retrieved from the gel. New Zealand white rabbit was immunized with the purified fusion protein and the antiserum against ph with a titre of 6.4×104 was prepared. Western blotting indicated that the prepared polyclonal antibody was specific for polyhedrin. The EupsNPV was detected by indirect ELISA and its regression equation was obtained: y=0.4152x-0.8299 with correlation coeffient r=0.9897(P<0.01). Indirect ELISA detection showed that the antibody could be used for quantitative detection of the NPV in a commercial bio-pesticide and provided an accurate and effective method for detection.
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    Cited: Baidu(2)
    A Preliminary Study on the Degradation Pathway of Caffeine in Tea Microbial Solid-state Fermentation
    ZHENG Chengqin, MA Cunqiang, ZHANG Zhengyan, LI Xiaohong, WU Tingting, ZHOU Binxing
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (3): 386-396.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.03.009
    Abstract146)      PDF(pc) (1079KB)(97)       Save
    In order to explore caffeine degradation products and pathways under the action of microorganisms, the dominant strains including Aspergillus sydowii NRRL250, Aspergillus pallidofulvus NRRL4789, Aspergillus sesamicola CBS137324 and Penicillium mangini CBS253.31 were screened and identified during pu-erh tea fermentation. Strains were inoculated into sun-dried green tea leaves for solid-state fermentation. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine caffeine, theobromine and theophylline contents to explore the effect of microorganisms on caffeine metabolism. UHPLC-QTOF-MS was used for the metabonomic analysis of Aspergillus sydowii inoculated fermentation with sterilization treatment group (ST group) and raw material group (RM group). The results show that the dominant strains such as A. pallidofulvus NRRL4789, A. sesamicola CBS137324 and Penicillium mangini CBS253.31 had no significant effects on the metabolism of caffeine and other purine alkaloids. However, caffeine content was decreased significantly (P<0.05) with a great reduction about 83.89% during the inoculated fermentation of Aspergillus sydowii. Additionally, theophylline content was increased significantly (P<0.05) and arrived to (25.03±1.17) mg·g-1 at the end of fermentation. While theobromine content remained stable. Therefore, Aspergillus sydowii has a profound effect on caffeine degradation metabolism. Nine metabolites related to caffeine degradation were detected by UHPLC-QTOF-MS during the inoculated fermentation, Among them, theophylline, 3-methylxanthine, 1,7-dimethylxanthine and 7-methylxanthine contents were significantly increased (P<0.05) under the action of Aspergillus sydowii which were related to N-demethylation pathway of caffeine and its related metabolites. 1,7-dimethyluric acid and 1-methyluric acid were related to the oxidation pathway of caffeine-related metabolites. It can be seen that Aspergillus sydowii is the dominant strain that can degrade caffeine and has the potential ability to convert caffeine into theophylline. Under the action of spergillus sydowii, both N-demethylation and oxidation were found in caffeine degradation metabolism, and the former was the dominant.
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    Young Shoot Purple-Related Gene Screening in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis) by Using cDNA Microarray
    MA Chun-lei, YAO Ming-zhe, WANG Xin-chao, JIN Ji-qiang, CHEN Liang
    Journal of Tea Science    2011, 31 (1): 59-65.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2011.01.010
    Abstract72)      PDF(pc) (307KB)(96)       Save
    Young shoots purple-related differentially expressed genes of tea plant have been found in purple and green shoots line of Longjing Qunti by cDNA microarray technique. There were 43 differentially expressed genes relating to purple shoots, among them 17 were up-regulated and 26 were down-regulated genes. Three differentially expressed genes and two no change genes were selected to verify the results of cDNA microarray hybridizations. The result of real time RT-PCR analysis was consistent with that of cDNA microarray. Then all of the differentially expressed genes were annotated functionally by Blast X search against the NCBI non-redundant protein databases. The molecular function of differentially expressed genes mainly included energy metabolism, secondary metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Especially two genes and two transcription factors involved in the biosynthesis pathway of anthocyanidin were selected from the results of cDNA microarray hybridizations. The phenylalanine ammonia lyase gene, MYB protein, WD40-like protein, and anthocyanidin reductase gene showed down-regulated 3.44, 2.25, 2.54 folds and up-regulated 2.09 folds, respectively. This study establishes a basis for further understanding the purple mechanism of tea young shoots and related gene cloning.
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    Development Trends and Technical Requirements of Tea Beverage in China Mainland
    YIN Jun-feng, XU Yong-quan, YUAN Hai-bo
    Journal of Tea Science    2010, 30 (S1): 588-592.  
    Abstract80)      PDF(pc) (204KB)(96)       Save
    Through discussing the development model of beverage in the world and analyzing the development trends of tea beverage industry in China mainland, the main technical requirements for promoting development of tea beverage in China mainland are put forward.
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    Cited: Baidu(10)
    Ecological Effects of Intercropping Tea with Aromatic Plant Basil and Perill in Young Tea Plantation
    ZHANG Zhengqun, TIAN Yueyue, GAO Shuwen, XU Yongyu, HUANG Xiaoqin, ZHANG Lixia
    Journal of Tea Science    2016, 36 (4): 389-395.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2016.04.007
    Abstract120)      PDF(pc) (740KB)(96)       Save
    To evaluate integrated ecological effects of intercropping young tea plants with aromatic plants, we investigated the populations of pests and natural enemies, soil nutrient status, growth of tea plants and tea ingredients in the intercropping plots. Aromatic plants intercropped with young tea plants reduced the numbers of Empoasca onukii Matsuda and Apolygus lucorum Meyer-Dür, and increased the numbers of natural enemies, such as coccinellids, lacewings, parasitoids and spiders in the tea plantations. The contents of ammonium nitrogen, available phosphate and available potassium in the soils in the plots intercropped with aromatic plants were relatively higher than those in the plots intercropped with white clover and the control. Intercropping facilitated tea growth, enhanced tree crown formation and increased vigor of young leaves, which are necessary for high yield of tea. Intercropping tea with aromatic plants decreased the contents of TP and caffeine, and increased the contents of soluble sugar and catechins in tea leaves, and finally improved the quality of tea. The results demonstrated that intercropping tea with aromatic plants is an effective cultivation method with great ecological economic benefits, and can promote the development of ecological tea plantation.
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    Journal of Tea Science    2002, 22 (01): 51-56.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2002.01.011
    Abstract81)      PDF(pc) (42KB)(96)       Save
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    Research on the Type and Mode of the Development of Tea Culture Resource
    SHEN Xuezheng, SU Zhucheng, WANG Xufeng
    Journal of Tea Science    2015, 35 (3): 299-306.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.03.015
    Abstract117)      PDF(pc) (670KB)(95)       Save
    Chinese tea culture converged the local economy and agriculture to form the tea cultural industry. Based on the theory of cultural resource, this thesis divided the tea culture heritage resources into 5 major types. And further more, we subdivided it into 15 basic categories. Meanwhile, in view of the different types of tea cultural heritage resources, we put forward 13 main development mode, which promote the regional economy and advance the tea industry transformation and upgrading. Then, taking Fujian Province, Wuyi area, TAETEA as the case, respectively, we summed up 3 kinds of development mode of tea cultural heritage resource, from a province, a region, a business point of view, namely comparative advantage model, point axis development model and the extended model industry.
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    Cited: Baidu(1)
    Research on The Status of Chinese Tea Consumption and Factors of Tea Consumer’s Behavior
    GUAN Xi, YANG Jiang-fan, XIE Xiang-ying, LIN Li-qiong
    Journal of Tea Science    2011, 31 (6): 546-551.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2011.06.006
    Abstract139)      PDF(pc) (619KB)(95)       Save
    By using logistic models and data from China Health and Nutrition Survey, the paper analyze the status of tea consumption in China and its influencing factors. The results showed that the consumer's age, gender, urban and rural areas, education, income and region affect the drinking behavior of consumers, the factor of age, education level and income showed significant positive effect on the consumer’s drinking, while male and urban consumers have higher possibility of drinking tea comparing to the female and rural consumer, and consumers in central-eastern region have lower possibility of drinking tea comparing to the western consumers. Based on the conclusion, the corresponding policy recommendations were put forward.
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    Bioinformatic Analysis and Prokaryotic Expression of Polyphenol Oxidase Gene in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)
    WANG Nai-dong, ZHANG Li-xia, XIANG Qin-zeng, LI Wei-wei
    Journal of Tea Science    2011, 31 (1): 33-39.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2011.01.006
    Abstract89)      PDF(pc) (544KB)(95)       Save
    The polyphenol oxidase (PPO, GenBank accession No. DQ812086) gene was amplified by PCR. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the cds of PPO DNA sequence is 1800bp, which encoded a protein of 599 amino acid residues (molecular formula: C3008H4677N813O900S18) and predicted that it had two Cu-band functional domains with no transmembrane. The phylogeny analysis showed that it has a most close phylogenetic relationship with Camellia nitidissima. The PPO was cloned into pET28a vector to construct recombination prokaryotic expression vector pET-ppo. After transformed to E1coli BL21 and induced by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside(IPTG), recombinant protein about 71kD was expressed in pET28a system and separated by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis.
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    Study on Chemical Modification and Anticoagulant Function in vitro of Tea Polysaccharides
    LIANG Jin, ZHANG Jian-yun, CUI Ying-ying, HUANG Long-quan
    Journal of Tea Science    2008, 28 (3): 166-171.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2008.03.010
    Abstract76)      PDF(pc) (203KB)(95)       Save
    The polysaccharides components of Olong tea were isolated and purified with DEAE-52 cellulose column chromatography. Sulfation, acetylation and carboxymethylation modification were separately selected to study on anticoagulant function in vitro of purified tea polysaccharides. The results showed that tea polysaccharides possess anticoagulant function, which could effectively prolonged APTT of human plasma, but had no obvious effect on PT and TT. Four polysaccharide components were separated by column, the component Ⅱ occupied 57.36% of total tea polysaccharides and it was relatively high anticoagulant activity. The anticoagulant function of tea polysaccharides component Ⅱ was further enhanced by sulfation,acetylation and carboxymethylation modification. The proportion between chemical modification reagents and polysaccharides, and modificating reaction time influenced on the modification degree of molecular structure of tea polysaccharides, and changed the anticoagulant activity accordingly.
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    Analysis of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community Structure in the Rhizosphere of Different Tea Cultivars
    HE Fei, LI Donghua, BU Fan
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (3): 319-327.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.03.003
    Abstract173)      PDF(pc) (343KB)(95)       Save
    In order to enrich the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal germplasm resources of tea plants (Camellia sinensis) in China, the community structure of AM fungi in the rhizosphere soil of different tea cultivars grown in Hanshuiyun tea garden of Ankang City, Shaanxi Province were analyzed. The results show that species richness, species and genera composition of AM fungi in the rhizosphere soil varied with tea cultivars. A total of six AM fungal species were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Ziyang population. Likewise, five from Shancha 1, four from Longjing Changye, four from Longjing 43, and three species from Fuding Dabai. Soil collected from the rhizosphere of Longjing Changye had the highest spore density (3.57 spores per gram of dry soil), while the lowest spore density (1.10 spores per gram of dry soil) was found in the rhizosphere of Longjing 43. The highest Shannon-Wiener and Pielou evenness indices were found in the rhizosphere of Ziyang population (0.63 and 0.096), whereas the lowest values were observed in the rhizosphere of Longjing Changye (0.18 and 0.027). The maximum mycorrhizal colonization (29.5%) was found in the rhizosphere of Longjing Changye, whereas the minimum value (15.8%) was observed in the rhizosphere of Fuding Dabai. The Sorenson’s similarity coefficient of AM fungal species composition among five tested tea cultivars ranged from 0.111 to 0.750, with the highest between Longjing Changye and Longjing 43, and the lowest between Fuding Dabai and Ziyang population. The results reveal obvious differences in AM fungal community composition among the five tea cultivars. The identified AM fungal resources in rhizosphere soil are of great significance for further screening, researching AM fungi agent, and promoting the development of tea industrialization.
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    Quantitative Analysis on Brand Premium Factors of Tea Enterprises Based on AHP and PSO
    SHEN Xuezheng, JIN Yujie, SU Zhucheng
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (1): 133-142.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.20200117.005
    Abstract164)      PDF(pc) (385KB)(94)       Save
    Brand premium is of great significance in the marketing operation of tea companies, and it is affected by many factors. Through 150 questionnaires and expert reviews, three first level factors, namely product quality, brand uniqueness and brand strength, and nine second level factors, including origin ecology, processing technology, production scale and brand personalized image were established. Meanwhile, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to quantitatively analyze each factor. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) was applied to improve the accuracy of results. A quantitative model of tea brand premium was built. It was found that brand awareness and origin ecology were the most important factors affecting brand premium. Then, according to different brand types, four brands of tea enterprises were selected to conduct empirical research, analyze their brand premium capabilities, and make recommendations.
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    Study on the Corpulent-reducing Function of Tea
    GONG Jin-yan, JIAO Mei, WU Xiao-qin, ZHANG Ying
    Journal of Tea Science    2007, 27 (3): 179-184.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2007.03.014
    Abstract73)      PDF(pc) (398KB)(94)       Save
    Obesity may occur after long period of disorders in appetite and energy metabolism regulations. With the increasing of obesity incidence, searching for the high effective corpulent-reducing medicine became the common wish of research. Tea has been widely used as healthy drink for thousands of years, its function of corpulent-reducing has brought more and more attention all over the world. In this paper, researches of corpulent-reducing function of tea and its mechanism have been summarized.
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    Cited: Baidu(17)
    Journal of Tea Science    2002, 22 (01): 57-61.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2002.01.012
    Abstract73)      PDF(pc) (41KB)(94)       Save
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    Effect of Raw Material Processing by Different Fixation Technology on the Stability with Quality of Tea Beverage
    YUAN Hai-bo, DENG Yu-liang, CHEN Gen-sheng, XU Yong-quan, WANG Fang, LIU Ping, ZHONG Xiao-yu, YIN Jun-feng
    Journal of Tea Science    2012, 32 (3): 236-246.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2012.03.004
    Abstract91)      PDF(pc) (1085KB)(93)       Save
    Different raw materials made by different fixation technology was adopted to process green-tea beverage. The extracting characteristics and content of quality components, organoleptic flavor are studied by the determination of polyphenols, amino acids, protein, sugar and other chemical components, and catechin components, aroma components as well as color, turbidity, combined with color, aroma, taste and other sensory evaluation, under the condition of fore-and-aft sterilization at high temperature and 37℃ storage 7d, 4℃ storage 7d. The fixation technology of raw materials which was suitable for green tea beverage was putted forward.
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    Cited: Baidu(3)
    Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of CsLHTs Gene Subfamily in Tea Plants (Camellia sinensis)
    GUO Lingling, ZHANG Fen, ZHANG Yazhen, CHENG Hao, WEI Kang, RUAN Li, WU Liyun, WANG Liyuan
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (3): 280-288.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.03.005
    Abstract206)      PDF(pc) (477KB)(93)    PDF(mobile) (477KB)(7)    Save
    Amino acids are important quality components and forms of nitrogen storage in tea plants (Camellia sinensis). Therefore, it is of great significance to study the function of amino acid transporters. In present study, five LHTs (Lysine histidine transporters, CsLHTs) were found from transcriptomes of tea plants. Among them, four CsLHTs were successfully cloned from the cultivar ‘Longjing 43’ by RT-PCR, and named CsLHT1, CsLHT6, CsLHT8.1 and CsLHT8.2, respectively. The prediction results from amino acid sequences showed that each of CsLHT contained 9-11 transmembrane domains and one domain of amino acid transporter. To investigate the expression patterns of these CsLHT genes under different nitrogen levels, cutting seedlings of three tea cultivars were fed with NH4NO3 of three levels (0.2 mmolL-1, 2 mmolL-1 and 10 mmolL-1) after two weeks of nitrogen starvation. The qRT-PCR results showed that four CsLHTs were expressed in all vegetative tissues, and exhibited diverse expression patterns. For the genes of CsLHT1, CsLHT6 and CsLHT8.2, the gene expression were affected more highly by tea cultivars rather than by nitrogen levels. However, the gene expression of CsLHT8.1 changed greatly by nitrogen treatments. Especially, after 72 h treatments of 0.2 mmolL-1 and 10 mmolL-1 NH4NO3, the CsLHT8.1 expressions were significantly up-regulated in the root of ‘Zhongcha 302’, which was identified as a high nitrogen efficient cultivar. These results implied that CsLHT8.1 might participate in the transport of amino acids from root to aerial parts in tea plants.
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    Proposal to Replace the Illegitimate Name of Tea Garden Weeds in China
    WU Huiping, QI Meng, LI Yeyun, MA Huiqin, WU Xun
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (3): 247-256.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.03.002
    Abstract364)      PDF(pc) (505KB)(93)    PDF(mobile) (505KB)(19)    Save
    Checklist information of the published names of tea garden weeds in China was compiled based on relevant references published from 1959 to 2018 and field investigations. The published species names were confirmed based on checklist information. The illegitimate names were identified and revised by the methods of supplement, correction and replacement according to authentic and domestic identification literatures. The results show that there were 517 illegitimate names in these literatures, with 331 illegitimate names transferred to legitimate names after revision. Compare to previous reports, there were 170 new records of weed species of tea garden in China which belonged to 129 genera and 46 families. In this paper, with the addition of previous legitimate names, totally 412 tea garden weed species, 8 varieties were recorded, which belonged to 251 genera and 72 families in China. The top 10 tea garden weeds based on their reporting frequencies were Conyza canadensis, Imperata cylindricaa and Digitaria sanguinalis, etc. relevant references published from 1959 to 2018 and field investigations. The published species names were confirmed based on checklist information. The illegitimate names were identified and revised by the methods of supplement, correction and replacement according to authentic and domestic identification literatures. The results show that there were 517 illegitimate names in these literatures, with 331 illegitimate names transferred to legitimate names after revision. Compare to previous reports, there were 170 new records of weed species of tea garden in China which belonged to 129 genera and 46 families. In this paper, with the addition of previous legitimate names, totally 412 tea garden weed species, 8 varieties were recorded, which belonged to 251 genera and 72 families in China. The top 10 tea garden weeds based on their reporting frequencies were Conyza canadensis, Imperata cylindricaa and Digitaria sanguinalis, etc.
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    Recent Advances on Tea Flowering Mechanisms
    LIU Ying, HAO Xinyuan, ZHENG Mengxia, WANG Xinchao, XIAO Bin, YANG Yajun
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (1): 1-10.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.01.001
    Abstract140)      PDF(pc) (747KB)(93)       Save
    Flowering is an important sign of changing to reproductive growth for plants. Therefore, the formation of flower organs is important for the transmission of genetic information. Tea plant is a valuable cash crop species originated from the southwestern China, whose active blossoms last a long period. In production, the consumption of large amount of nutrients by exuberant reproductive growth seriously affects the yield and quality of tea. On the contrary, in cross breeding, tea plant has the features of self-incompatibility and low seed fertility. In order to gain insight into the timetable of floral bud differentiation and development, influencing factors and molecular regulation mechanisms, it is necessary to disclose the flowering mechanism of tea plant to provide a theoretical basis for fine breeding, high-efficiency production and improving breeding efficiency. Currently, researches on tea plant flowering had made some progresses, but not deep and systematic enough. This paper introduced recent advances in flowering regulation in tea plant and other plant species, flower bud differentiation and floral development. Useful thoughts for current problems and future research directions in tea plant flowering were also provided.
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    Journal of Tea Science    1999, 19 (02): 93-103.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.1999.02.003
    Abstract113)      PDF(pc) (3755KB)(93)       Save
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    Study on the Discipline System of Tea Culture
    ZHU Hong-ying
    Journal of Tea Science    2006, 26 (1): 42-48.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2006.01.007
    Abstract75)      PDF(pc) (398KB)(93)       Save
    From the viewpoint of professional education, the paper aims at the framework of tea culture teaching system. Firstly, the subject of tea culture has a distinct research object. Secondly, it analyzes the related research fields, which consist of the discipline of tea science, the discipline of tea art, the discipline of tea literature, the discipline of tea economy. Finally, it explores the development of tea culture on the basis of the value system. This paper tries to present a concept and model on the teaching of tea culture.
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    Cited: Baidu(3)
    Positive Studies on Characteristics of Tea Consumers in Hangzhou City
    TANG Yi, HUANG Han-dan
    Journal of Tea Science    2007, 27 (4): 323-327.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2007.04.011
    Abstract96)      PDF(pc) (391KB)(93)       Save
    According to the results of questionnaire survey in Hangzhou city, Ordinal Logit model was applicated to explain relations between characteristics of consumers and level of tea demand. The regression results showed: custom of tea drinking showed the most important impact on tea consumption amount of Hangzhou citizen, moreover the major factor to affect purchasing price of tea is level of income. Other relevant factors include age, degree of trust in tea’s efficacy, price sensitivity and so on, whereas gender, educational background and occupation showed no obvious effect on tea demand.
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    Cited: Baidu(8)
    A Quantitative Method for Brightness Evaluation of Congou Black Tea Infusions Based on Color Difference Analysis
    WANG Jiaqin, YAO Yuefeng, YUAN Haibo, JIANG Yongwen, LI Jia
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (2): 259-268.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.02.012
    Abstract105)      PDF(pc) (495KB)(93)       Save
    The brightness of tea infusion is one of the important factors reflecting the quality of black tea. At present, the evaluation of the brightness of tea infusion is dependent on the human sensory evaluation, which lacks a quantitative assessment. In this study, based on the brightness of the infusions obtained by the sensory evaluation, 43 congou black tea infusions with different brightness were measured using color difference analysis in combination with multivariate analysis and linear regression, and an equation for brightness prediction was established. The results show that bright and dark black tea infusions could be discriminated based on their color difference profiles in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Based on linear regression, the key variables L99 (lightness) and C* (chroma) were selected and the established prediction equation was Lpre=-46.028+0.519×L99+0.117×C*. It was revealed that, the predicted brightness showed high correlation with that obtained by human sensory evaluation with the Pearson correlation of 0.92 (P<0.01). Besides, the effectiveness of established prediction equation for quantitative evaluation of tea infusion brightness had been further proved using validation set. In summary, in this study, a rapid and effective method based on color difference analysis and multi statistical approaches was developed which enabled quantitative evaluation of the brightness of black tea infusions. This study could provide new insights into the intelligent evaluation of black tea quality, as well as oriented manufacture of highly-bright black tea.
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    Construction of Tea Caffeine Synthase Gene RNAi Vector
    ZHANG Guang-hui, LIANG Yue-rong, LU Jian-liang, DONG Jun-jie
    Journal of Tea Science    2006, 26 (4): 243-248.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2006.04.002
    Abstract87)      PDF(pc) (222KB)(92)       Save
    Tea Caffeine synthase (TCS) is one of the key enzymes involved in caffieine biosynthsis in tea plant (Camellia sinensis),which catalyses conversions of 7-methylxanthine to theobromine and theobromine to caffeine. Inhibition of TCS gene expression can leads to breeding low caffeine tea cultivars. Two cDNA fragments of TCS gene were amplified by RT-PCR, and ligated into T-vector. The two TCS gene fragments were inserted into RNAi vector pFGC5941 in reverse direction after double digestion with two pairs of restriction endonucleases. The insertion of two fragments, namely pFGC5941-TCS02 and pFGC5941-TCS03, into the RNAi vector were confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing.
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    Cited: Baidu(14)
    Effect of Interactions Between EGCG and Zn2+ on the Growth of Prostate Cancer PC-3 Cells
    CHEN Xun, YU Hai-ning, SHEN Sheng-rong
    Journal of Tea Science    2006, 26 (3): 219-224.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2006.03.013
    Abstract55)      PDF(pc) (302KB)(91)       Save
    In the present paper, effects of EGCG and interactions of EGCG with Zn2+on the growth of androgen-insensitive human prostate cancer cells (PC-3) were investigated by MTT assay. Effects of EGCG and Zn2+ on absorption of zinc and cadmium in PC-3 cells were detected by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) assay; and also the changes of Zn2+ on the partition coefficients of EGCG in n-octanol/PBS or n-octanol / water system were determined by HPLC technique. EGCG was screened for growth inhibition of PC-3 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. Both Zn 2+ and EGCG decreased viability of PC-3 cells in dose- and time-dependent relations, and Zn2+ ameliorated the effect of EGCG on the growth of PC-3 cells. Also, Zn2+ decreased the absorption of PC-3 cells on Cd2+, and EGCG could enhance the effect as well.
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    Study of SNP and Relative dCAPS Markers in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)
    ZHANG Cheng-cai, WANG Li-yuan, WEI Kang, CHENG Hao, BAO Yun-xiu, LIU Ben-ying, WANG Yun-gang
    Journal of Tea Science    2012, 32 (6): 517-522.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2012.06.013
    Abstract60)      PDF(pc) (579KB)(91)       Save
    SNPs were mined from tea-derived EST sequences. Primers were designed to evaluate the predicted SNPs in genomic DNA from tea plant. The PCR products were sequenced from both directions to confirm the valid SNPs. Meanwhile, the dCAPS primers were designed based on the valid SNPs and the genomic DNA was used for amplification. The amplicons were digested by restrict enzymes to convert SNPs into dCAPS markers. Furthermore, we also detected the separation of the new markers in a F1 population. The results showed that seventeen SNPs (54.8%) were confirmed in 11 amplycons, eight SNPs were successfully converted to dCAPS markers (72.7%), two of them which have polymorphisms in parents exhibited a separate ratio of 1︰1 in the F1 population. The new markers would be useful in tea genetic research. It is also believed that dCAPS technology will promote the use of SNP technology in genetics and breeding research in tea plant.
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    Research on Enzymatic Nature of Polyphenol Oxidase from Trametes Trogii and the Enzymatic Synthesis of Theaflavins
    LI Shi, LIU Zhong-hua, HUANG Jian-an, WANG Kun-bo, SHI Ling
    Journal of Tea Science    2008, 28 (5): 326-330.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2008.05.001
    Abstract115)      PDF(pc) (418KB)(90)       Save
    :The investigation on the oxidative preparation in vitro of theaflavin by using the polyphenol oxidase(PPO) from Trametes trogii was conducted. Results showed that the optimum reaction temperature for PPO produced by Trametes trogii was ranged from 28℃to 36℃, and the optimum pH value for PPO was 5.2. The PPO showed higher activity and stability during the first 30 minutes when the reaction temperature was constant. 96.2% PPO could be precipitated from the crude enzyme solution when 50% Ammonium sulfate was added to. Added PPO (from Trametes trogii) to two-liquid-phase of catechin reaction system, the TFs was produced 10.19%. Compared with the contrast (PPO from fresh tea leaves), the total quantity of TFs (PPO from Trametes trogii) was lower,but the ratio of TF-3-G was much higher when PPO come from Trametes trogii, and the content of TF-3-G reached 68.1%. It occupied 92.08% of the total ester TFs.
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    Journal of Tea Science    1997, 17 (02): 189-192.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.1997.02.006
    Abstract50)      PDF(pc) (68KB)(90)       Save
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    Studies on the Identification and Isolation of Lactobacillus plantarum ssp. plantarum JJZ21 and Its Fermentation Properties
    JIANG Jinzhong, YANG Pengming, WANG Zibu, MU Ande, WANG Xingchun
    Journal of Tea Science    2018, 38 (6): 625-633.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.06.009
    Abstract112)      PDF(pc) (369KB)(90)       Save
    To clarify the fermentation properties of microorganisms in fermentation layering of tea-seed-water-milk (TSWM), identification and isolation of microorganism in 5βh fermented TSWM were conducted. Based on morphological observation, 16βS rDNA, pheS gene sequencing and comparison, and phylogenetic tree analysis, a bacterial strain isolated from the fermented TSWM was identified as a strain of Lactobacillus plantarum ssp. Plantarum and named as L. plantarum ssp. Plantarum JJZ21 (LPJJZ21). Its culture preservation number was CCTCC M 2016471. In the fermentation process of TSWM, the total number of LPJJZ21 was increased rapidly after 5βh, peaked at 12βh to 15βh, then gradually reduced until 22βh, finally stayed stable after 22βh. Accompanied by the increasing of LPJJZ21, the dry matter, soluble sugar, soluble protein contents and pH decreased significantly, with highly significant (P<0.01) and negative correlation. Through consuming the soluble protein, soluble sugar and other substances in fermented TSWM, JJZ21 secreted acidic organic matter (such as lactate acid and so on), leading to the gradual decrease of pH in fermented TSWM, which were the prerequisite for the floating up of fat bodies in fermented TSWM and fermentation layering of TSWM.
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    The Antidepressant Effect of Tea Polyphenols to the Chronic Unpredictable Stress induced Depressive Mice
    FU Xiao-bin, GOU Ling-shan, HE Dong-mei, JIA Gen-guang, LI Yan, XUE Yun-sheng, LI Sai, LAN Nuo, LIU Yi
    Journal of Tea Science    2013, 33 (4): 301-305.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2013.04.014
    Abstract87)      PDF(pc) (520KB)(89)       Save
    The antidepressant effects of tea polyphenols on the chronic stress-induced depression in mice and the possible underlying mechanism were investigated in this paper. The antidepressant model of chronic unpredictable mild stress mice (CUMS) was established. The activities of the mice exposed to various stress were tested in the open-field, the immobility duration of the forced swimming test and tail suspension test were measured. Meanwhile, the contents of the 5-HT and the NE in the brain tissue were determined, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), GSH-Px and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the brain tissue were estimated by spectrophotometry. The CUMS-induced depressive mice exhibited significant decrease in the activities in the open-field test as compared with the control group (#P<0.05, P<0.001), while the immobility duration in the forced swimming test and tail suspension test were significantly increased, and the latency period (#P<0.05, P<0.001. #P<0.05, P<0.05) were shortened. However, tea polyphenols ameliorated the defecits of the behavior of the mice. Moreover, tea polyphenols increased the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and the content of 5-HT, NE, and decreased the contents of MDA in the brain tissue. The depressive status can be attenuated by the administration of tea polyphenols, the underlying mechanism might be attributed to their antioxidative property and enhancement of serotonergic functions.
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    Analysis of Aroma Quality Characteristic in An-hua Qian-liang Tea
    QI Dongqing, ZHOU Yuebin, SHEN Chengwen, CAI Xiang, WANG Xiao, YU Jiangyi
    Journal of Tea Science    2015, 35 (3): 209-216.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.03.002
    Abstract68)      PDF(pc) (798KB)(89)       Save
    Simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) technique combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identification method were applied to analyze the volatile components in nine kinds of An-hua Qian-liang tea, in which, the