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Basic Information about the Journal
Journal title: Journal of Tea science
Inscription of journal title: ZHU De
Responsible Institution: China Association for Science and Technology
Sponsored by: China Tea Science Society
Tea Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
Editing and Publishing: Editorial Office, Journal of Tea science
Start time: 1964
No. of issues: Bi-monthly
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    Study on Primitive Morpheme in Sensory Terminology and Flavor Wheel Construction of Chinese Tea
    ZHANG Yingbin, LIU Xu, LU Chengyin
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (4): 474-483.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.20190530.001
    Abstract2101)      PDF(pc) (891KB)(1250)       Save
    The critical work of perfecting sensory terms is to further set the rules for the complex terms by extracting, classifying and defining primitive morphemes. Based on the standard GB/T 14487—2017 (Terms of tea sensory tests), a total of 137 primitive morphemes were extracted, including 48 appearance and brewed leaves terms, 17 color terms, 46 aroma terms, 13 flavor terms and 13 degree terms. These primitive morphemes were also defined in English and Japanese. Through the analysis of the composition and semantics of these terms, Chinese tea color wheel, taste wheel, aroma wheel and sensory attributes wheel were constructed depending on practical tea sensory evaluation experience.
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    Research Progress on Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Liupao Tea
    MA Wanjun, MA Shicheng, LIU Chunmei, LONG Zhirong, TANG Baojun, LIN Zhi, LYU Haipeng
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (3): 289-304.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.03.001
    Abstract1387)      PDF(pc) (1369KB)(1073)       Save
    Liupao tea is a kind of distinctive dark tea products in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region with a long history of production and marketing. It has unique flavor quality characteristics and health-care effects, which has attracted much attention in recent years. In this paper, the research progress on chemical composition and biological activity of Liupao tea over the last 20 years was reviewed, and the future research interests of Liupao tea were also discussed preliminarily.
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    Research Progress of Tea Quality Evaluation Technology
    LIU Qi, OUYANG Jian, LIU Changwei, CHEN Hongyu, LI Juan, XIONG Ligui, LIU Zhonghua, HUANG Jian'an
    Journal of Tea Science    2022, 42 (3): 316-330.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.20220416.001
    Abstract907)      PDF(pc) (812KB)(951)       Save
    The quality of tea is the embodiment of the shape and inner quality of tea, and evaluating the quality of tea quickly and accurately is essential for tea trade and processing. Sensory evaluation, composition analysis and detection, and emerging technologies are the main tea quality evaluation techniques at present. This article summarized the research progress of three major evaluation technologies in recent years, and focused on the development trend of emerging technologies. Sensory evaluation is greatly influenced by subjective factors, but combined with quantitative description and analysis can reduce the influence of subjectivity. Component analysis detection has high threshold, difficult operation, time-consuming and labor-consuming, and the results obtained are relatively accurate. Emerging technologies are simple, fast, and non-destructive, but at present they cannot achieve satisfactory accuracy. In the tea product diversification today, only multi-dimensional comprehensive utilization of multiple methods can quickly and efficiently detect the quality of tea, and provide assistance for the healthy and efficient development of the tea industry.
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    Research on the Type and Mode of the Development of Tea Culture Resource
    SHEN Xuezheng, SU Zhucheng, WANG Xufeng
    Journal of Tea Science    2015, 35 (3): 299-306.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.03.015
    Abstract427)      PDF(pc) (670KB)(938)       Save
    Chinese tea culture converged the local economy and agriculture to form the tea cultural industry. Based on the theory of cultural resource, this thesis divided the tea culture heritage resources into 5 major types. And further more, we subdivided it into 15 basic categories. Meanwhile, in view of the different types of tea cultural heritage resources, we put forward 13 main development mode, which promote the regional economy and advance the tea industry transformation and upgrading. Then, taking Fujian Province, Wuyi area, TAETEA as the case, respectively, we summed up 3 kinds of development mode of tea cultural heritage resource, from a province, a region, a business point of view, namely comparative advantage model, point axis development model and the extended model industry.
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    Cited: Baidu(1)
    Analysis on Development Scale ofChineseTea Industry in 2020
    JIANG Yong-wen, CHEN Xiao-xiong, ZHU Jian-miao, YANG Shuang-xu
    Journal of Tea Science    2011, 31 (3): 273-282.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2011.03.013
    Abstract581)      PDF(pc) (374KB)(909)       Save
    This paper analyzed achievements and developing factors of Chinese tea industry since the 21th century and made predictive parsing to the external environment, supplying ability and demand of tea in five to ten years. It was considered, though the development of Chinese tea industry was restricted by market demand and production factors, that it would have a relative broad space for development. Chinese tea industry could develop steadily in future on the conditions to solve its present issues, grasp market chance, improve competitive ability and quicken the pace of upgrade. It was predicted that the total tea output of China would be 1785000 tons in 2015 and 2200000 tons in 2020.
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    Cited: Baidu(11)
    Journal of Tea Science    2002, 22 (01): 7-13+29.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2002.01.002
    Abstract350)      PDF(pc) (66KB)(896)       Save
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    Leaching Pattern of Internal Substances and Xenobiotic Pollutants during Tea Brewing
    CHEN Hongping, LIU Xin, LU Chengyin, QIU Jing
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (1): 63-76.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.20200117.008
    Abstract1059)      PDF(pc) (497KB)(838)       Save
    Based on the recent literatures, the dissolving, releasing and transformation patterns of tea internal compounds and exogenous contaminants were summarized and discussed in this study. Physicochemical properties of chemicals and tea brewing methods are the internal and external cause affecting extraction rates of chemicals during tea brewing. Internal cause plays a crucial role in extraction rates, while external cause is more prominent for the leaching of tea internal substances. Water solubility of chemicals is positively correlated with extraction rates, while octanol-water partition is negatively correlated with extraction rates. Increasing water temperature is helpful for increasing extraction rates of chemicals and their concentrations in tea infusion. Brewing time is negatively correlated with extraction rates in a period of time, while the concentrations of chemicals in tea infusion increase with the brewing time. Compared with other pesticides, most of neonicotine pesticides and carbamate pesticides have higher extraction rates over 60%. The results of extraction rates of metal elements in tea infusion are quite different, and extraction rates of fluorine, nickel and cobalt have high extraction rates over 50%, while extraction rates of lead range from 20% to 50%. Metabonomic analysis based-high resolution mass spectrometry technique is a promising and powerful method for profiling extracting pattern of chemicals during tea brewing. Meanwhile, extracting behavior of toxic compounds during tea brewing will be deeply understood by using thermodynamic theory and kinetic model of mass extraction.
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    Research Progress on the Bitterness of Green Tea
    MA Yuanyuan, CAO Qingqing, GAO Yizhou, LIU Yuyi, DENG Sihan, YIN Junfeng, XU Yongquan
    Journal of Tea Science    2023, 43 (1): 1-16.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2023.01.001
    Abstract497)      PDF(pc) (602KB)(774)       Save
    Tea, as a hobby drink, the flavor is its first quality attribute. The presentation of its taste is the comprehensive perception effect of the human taste organs on the flavor components in tea infusion, which is generally manifested as bitter, astringent, fresh, sweet and other sensory experiences. Among them, bitterness is the most easily perceived taste attribute, and as a crucial factor affecting the flavor quality of tea. Meanwhile, due to the bitter taste, summer and autumn tea resources are faced with the dilemma of large abandonment, resulting in a great waste of resources. Based on this, this paper reviewed the physiological basis of bitter perception and the evaluation methods of bitter taste perception. Taking green tea infusion as the main carrier, the bitter taste components of tea were systematically integrated, and the interaction effect between other taste monomers and bitter compounds, as well as the regulatory mechanism of post-treatment on the bitter taste of tea infusion were discussed. It was expected to enrich the theoretical basis of taste chemistry and clarify the flavor characteristics of bitter compounds of tea, the taste mechanism and the interaction effect between taste substances, and provide theoretical reference for promoting the high-value utilization and taste regulation of summer and autumn tea.
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    Identification and Expression Analysis of Terpene Synthesis Related Genes during the Withering of White Tea
    CHEN Xuejin, WANG Pengjie, LIN Xinying, GU Mengya, ZHENG Yucheng, ZHENG Zhilin, YE Naixing
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (3): 363-374.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.03.007
    Abstract708)      PDF(pc) (1459KB)(751)       Save
    Terpenes are the important secondary metabolites in plants and play an important role in the composition of the volatile aroma of tea plants. In this study, 141 tea plant terpenoid synthesis-related genes were identified from the tea plant genome database. Their expression specificities in different tissues were analyzed. Sixteen terpene synthetic genes which were highly expressed in the apical buds and young leaves of tea plants were screened. The results of bioinformatics methods show that the phylogenetic relationship divides the genes related to terpene synthesis of tea plant, Arabidopsis and grape into four subfamilies. The terpenoid synthesis related genes contain 5 to 14 exons and a large number of cis-related elements closely related to light response, plant growth and development, hormone and stress response according to the upstream promoter region analysis. Fluorescence quantitative detection showed that the expressions of CsMVK, CsDXS and CsGGPS were significantly up-regulated during the withering process of white tea. The expressions of CsDXR, CsMCT, CsCMK, CsMCS, CsHDS, CsGPPS and CsGGPPS showed the highest expressions at 4 h and 24 h after withering. The results of this study provided a theoretical basis for further exploring the functions of terpenoid synthesis related genes in tea.
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    Sensory Characteristics of Tea Polyphenols and It’s Effects on Astringency of Tea
    TONG Hua-rong, JIN Xiao-fang, GONG Xue-lian
    Journal of Tea Science    2006, 26 (2): 79-86.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2006.02.001
    Abstract581)      PDF(pc) (483KB)(749)       Save
    There are a large amount of tea polyphenols in tea. Tea polyphenols show great effects on astringency of tea taste. Astringency is the principal sensory notes of tea tastes, and show a great influence on the total sensory quality of tea. This paper reviews the sensory characteristics of tea polyphenols, analysis of astringency and the effects of tea polyphenols on astringency of tea infusions.
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    Research Progress of Cellulase and Pectinase in the Extraction of Tea Leaves
    GONG Yu-lei, WEI Chun, WANG Zhi-biao, SHEN Xue-liang
    Journal of Tea Science    2013, 33 (4): 311-321.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2013.04.004
    Abstract699)      PDF(pc) (1179KB)(742)       Save
    Tea is one of the most widely consumed soft beverages. Tea beverages more excellent in flavor and formation of less deposits are more preferred. With the development of modern biotechnology, the microbial enzymes are applied in the extraction process of tea leaves. The cell walls of tea leaf and proteins are easy to be hydrolyzed, and the formation of precipitates can be avoided. The extract yields of polyphenols, thearubigins and amino acids were increased. And the tea qualities including color, odour and flavor improved accordingly. In this article, the hydrolytic enzymes including cellulase, pectinase, tannase and protease are introduced in detail, and their applications in tea extraction process are reviewed. The prospects of complex enzymes system in tea extraction process are also previewed.
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    Cited: Baidu(12)
    Research Advance on Tea Biochemistry
    WAN Xiaochun, LI Daxiang, ZHANG Zhengzhu, XIA Tao, LING Tiejun, CHEN Qi
    Journal of Tea Science    2015, 35 (1): 1-10.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.01.002
    Abstract886)      PDF(pc) (1093KB)(734)       Save
    Tea biochemistry is a subject of life science on Camellia Sinensis. It mainly focus on characteristic secondary metabolites of tea plants, especially those in the fresh tea shoots using biochemical and molecular techniques as research tools. Those metabolites include catechins, caffeine, theanine and volatile terpenes, which contribute greatly to tea quality and healthy effects. The major research fields of tea biochemistry involve the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in tea plants, their transformation during tea processing and their effects on final tea quality and healthy function. Recently, there have several breakthroughs in the metabolites biosynthesis pathway, tea genome, specific tea germplasm metabolome, the processing metabolome, as well as the chemistry of tea quality. Since tea biochemistry is the fundamental in tea science, its achievements provide the theoretical basis and method approaches to tea cultivation and breeding, tea primary and further processing, tea trading and tea culture. With the development of tea industry and life science & technology, it is believed that the advancement of tea biochemistry will push forward tea industry to a high level at the sustainable development.
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    Cited: Baidu(17)
    Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen Distribution in Aggregates from Yellow-red Soils Under Tea Plantations with Different Fertilizer Managements
    WANG Limin, HUANG Dongfeng, LI Qinghua, HE Chunmei, ZHANG Hui, LIU Cailing, LI Fangliang, HUANG Yibin
    Journal of Tea Science    2018, 38 (4): 342-352.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.04.002
    Abstract494)      PDF(pc) (819KB)(733)       Save
    Application of livestock manures and plant residues is a feasible practice to largely mitigate soil-degradative trends by increasing amounts of organic matter. However, long-term effects of fertilization regimes on the distribution of organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in aggregate size fractions were poorly documented in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) plantations in subtropical areas. A 10-year study was thus conducted to elucidate the impacts of fertilization patterns on the stability and allocation of TOC, TN and C/N ratio within water stable aggregate (WSA) fractions in soils under non-fertilization control (CK), chemical fertilizers only (CF), and integrated use of chicken manure and legume straw with chemical fertilizers (IF), respectively. Soil (0-20 cm) samples were collected and separated into ≥2, <2-1, <1-0.5, <0.5-0.25 and <0.25-0.106βmm aggregate classes by wet sieving, and finally used for TOC and TN analysis. The results showed that the IF treatment significantly (P<0.05) increased TOC and TN storage in all aggregate fractions relative to that of CK. Irrespective of the fertilization patterns, tea soils in subtropical China stored higher amounts of TOC and TN in the ≥2βmm water-stable fraction. In terms of the TOC and TN storage, the order of different aggregate fractions in IF- and CF-treated soils was (≥2β mm ) > (<0.5-0.25βmm) > (<1-0.5βmm) > (<2-1βmm) > (<0.25-0.106βmm), whereas that of CK-treated soils was (≥2βmm) > (<1-0.5βmm) > (<0.5-0.25βmm) > (<2-1βmm) > (<0.25-0.106βmm). Furthermore, the percentage of WSA ≥2βmm ranged from 54.95% under CK to 66.97% under IF treatment. Furthermore, TOC and TN adhered to WSA ≥2βmm, which accounted for 33.31%~45.45% of TOC and 33.76%~46.60% of TN in bulk soils under all treatments. Meanwhile, the IF treatment significantly (P<0.05) increased mean weight diameter (MWD) of aggregates as compared to that in CK- and CF- treated soils. However, a lower C:N ratio was observed in different aggregate fractions in IF-treated soils compared with that of CK. Additionally, WSA ≥2βmm was positively and significantly correlated with TN and TOC contents. In conclusion, the IF treatment improved aggregate stability, increased C and N storage in bulk soil and aggregates, and thus enhanced soil quality in tea farms in subtropical China.
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    Research on Main Physical Properties of Tea Leaves in High-quality Green Tea Processing
    LI Chen, AI Zeyi, YU Zhi, CHEN Yuqiong, NI Dejiang
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (6): 705-714.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.06.009
    Abstract796)      PDF(pc) (580KB)(645)       Save
    Taking one bud and one bud with one leaf of tea as the test materials, the variations of physical properties of tea leaves such as bulk density, texture and tensile properties in needle-shaped green tea processing were studied by the method of constant weight and graduated cylinder, TPA and stress-strain tensile test. As a result, the bulk density of tea leaves was first increased and then decreased, with the peak in the rolled leaves (water content 56%-58%). it was sharply decreased during the post-forming, fixing and drying processes. The plasticity presented the same trend with the maximum appeared in the rolling process. It then remained a high level in the forming process (water content 58%-23%), and declined significantly during the fixing and drying processes. The trend of elasticity was opposite to the plasticity, with the lowest level in the rolling and forming processes (water content 58%-23%). Less variation was observed in flexibility during the whole processing. The tensile process of tea leaves undergoed linear, nonlinear and plastic deformation to fracture stages. The trend of maximum force was decreased first and then increased (water content 56%-57%). The tensile strength was increased during the whole processing. The elastic modulus varied a little before the rolling process and then increased significantly. The correlation analysis shows that the tensile strength of tea leaves was significantly and negatively correlated with water content in the processing, and the diversification of main physical properties of one bud and one bud with one leaf in processing were not exactly the same. Besides the similar level of plasticity and flexibility, the bulk density, elasticity and maximum force of one bud were higher than that of one bud with one leaf. While the plasticity, tensile strength and elastic modulus showed an opposite trend. In the whole processing, apart from the similar level of plasticity and flexibility, the bulk density and elasticity of one bud in each process were higher than that of one bud with one leaf, but the elastic modulus and tensile strength showed an opposite trend. the maximum force of one bud with one leaf was significantly higher than that of one bud after the rolling process. In conclusion, the differences in raw materials should be emphasized in the principles of mechanical design and processing techniques.
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    The Antiviral Properties of Tea
    XIONG Ligui, LIU Sihui, HUANG Jian'an, LIU Zhonghua
    Journal of Tea Science    2021, 41 (2): 143-158.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2021.02.001
    Abstract938)      PDF(pc) (566KB)(635)       Save
    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is known as a global health beverage, and global tea consumption increases due to its biological activities. In the last 30 years, antiviral activities of tea and its components, especially tea polyphenols, with different modes of action were demonstrated on diverse families of viruses, such as influenza virus, coronavirus, hepatitis virus, and human immunodeficiency virus, etc. This review summarized the current knowledge on the antiviral activities of tea and its components. Most of these studies demonstrated antiviral properties of tea and its components by in vitro biochemical or cell experiments with little rodent and clinical studies. Therefore, it is still unclear whether the antiviral effects of daily tea consumption are available. More large-scale randomized intervention and epidemiological/clinical studies are needed to confirm clinical efficacy of tea and its components.
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    Research Progress of Tea Aroma Based on CiteSpace Visual Analysis
    YIN Xia, HUANG Jian'an, HUANG Jing, BAO Xiaocun, ZHOU Lingyun, LI Wei, LIU Hongyan, ZHANG Shuguang, LIU Zhonghua
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (2): 143-156.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.02.001
    Abstract901)      PDF(pc) (1249KB)(632)       Save
    In this paper, the literatures collected by WOS (Web of science) and CNKI from 1979-2019 were taken as the research object. CiteSpace's bibliometric method was used to analyze the aroma quality of tea from the aspects of age, author, institution, country, research hotspot, evolution trend, etc. The results show that the literatures of tea aroma research had a significant growth trend since 2006. Currently, a stable core group of authors had been formed but there were little cooperation among these groups. China had the largest research influence in this field, followed by Japan and the United States. The hot research areas mainly focused on the following topics: the mechanism of aroma formation, the extraction and detection methods of aroma substances, and the key aroma compounds. According to the time zone map, the research progress and development stage of tea aroma at present were pointed out.
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    A Review on the Regulation Technique of Withering Process and the Change in Physical and Chemical Properties of Leaves
    HUA Jin-jie, YUAN Hai-bo, JIANG Yong-wen, LIU Ping, WANG Wei-wei
    Journal of Tea Science    2013, 33 (5): 465-472.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2013.05.005
    Abstract581)      PDF(pc) (569KB)(623)       Save
    The withering is an important process of fermented tea, such as black tea and oolong tea, significantly affected the sensory quality of tea. With water constantly lost in the withering process, the respiration of fresh leaf is carrying on continuously, the endoplasmic components are also dramatically changed and the physical characteristics of withering leaves are also prompted to change. All of these provided specific substances and leaves basis for the follow-up processes and the quality of finished tea. This paper illustrates the dynamic variation of the physical properties and biochemical components in the withering process, and conducted a systemic review on the regulation and control technology on the key parameters of current withering. The facility withering technology, which can accurately control these parameters including environment conditions, such as temperature, humidity, light conditions and aeration conditions, will become the important direction of withering development in the future.
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    Cited: Baidu(16)
    Integrated Nutrient Management in Tea Plantation to Reduce Chemical Fertilizer and Increase Nutrient Use Efficiency
    RUAN Jianyun, MA Lifeng, YI Xiaoyun, SHI Yuanzhi, NI Kang, LIU Meiya, ZHANG Qunfeng
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (1): 85-95.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.20200117.003
    Abstract1283)      PDF(pc) (1210KB)(597)       Save
    Tea is an important agricultural industry with great comparative advantage in southern China. However, there are some problems in tea fertilization inducing large nutrient loss, higher production cost and environmental risks. These problems are mainly excessive nutrient input, low proportion of specialized compound fertilizer for tea, low substitution rate of organic nutrients and low efficient application methods such as surface broadcasting. This paper summarized previous results and formulated a technical strategy of integrated nutrient management in tea plantation (INMT) including optimizing nutrient input amounts, properly replacing part of chemical fertilizer with organic fertilizers, choosing right fertilizer products, improving fertilization methods and ameliorating soil properties. Optimization of nutrient input amounts was achieved by controlling whole annual N input on the basis of tea type and yield level, and P and K on their relevant ratio to N and soil test if available. Limits of top input for these nutrients were suggested. Reasonable replacement ratio of organic fertilizer was recommended at 25%-50% of the total N input. A compound fertilizer with specialized formula for tea was developed and tested in more than 70 plantations across the main tea producing areas, efficiently increasing yield and quality while saving nutrient input. Fertilizer application was improved through changing topdressing period and adopting deep and mechanical application.Integrated nutrient management of tea was evaluated in 9 farmers’ and cooperative tea plantations. The average yield was increased by 9% in contrast with 42% reduction of average nutrient input. The tea quality was maintained or improved as indicated by slightly increased contents of amino acids and tea polyphenols.
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    Classification and Identification of Different Aromatics in Tea Made from Different Cultivar of Fenghuang Dancong
    ZHOU Chunjuan, ZHUANG Donghong, GUO Shoujun, ZHU Hui, MA Ruijun, WU Qinghan
    Journal of Tea Science    2014, 34 (6): 609-616.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2014.06.023
    Abstract704)      PDF(pc) (837KB)(589)       Save
    The volatile compositions of 17 kinds of Fenghuang Dancong Tea with different aromatics were analyzed using a combination of simultaneous distillation extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SDE-GC/MS), then compared with their ancestor, narcissus series tea, and the non-narcissus series tea. The results showed that according to the aroma pattern similar to or higher than the rate of 95% , they are classified into seven aroma patterns: Huangzhi aroma(gardenia Magnolia fragrance), Xingren aroma(almond fragrance), Milan aroma (honey-orchid fragrance), Zhilan aroma(iris orchid fragrance), Yulan aroma(magnolia fragrance), Juduozai whose aroma pattern was not identified and Gong aroma. The similarity are different not only between each aromatics and varieties, but also between each aromatics and their original variety. By analyzing the difference in the aroma components of different Fenghuang Dancong tea with same aroma pattern, it showed that Dancong tea with different aroma pattern has content differences on the common components, and each also has its characteristic components. For example, the isoeugenol in the Dancong tea with Zhilan aroma, α-cadinol in the Huangzhi aroma, torreyol, β-ionone and caryophyllene in the Milan aroma and the 4-terpenol in the Juduozai Dancong tea, and methyl anthranilate of the Gong aroma. These components may be the characteristic aroma composition in the respective Fenghuang Dancong tea, and can be used as one of the important basis in the aroma pattern classification in the Fenghuang Dancong tea.
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    Cited: Baidu(5)
    Analysis of the Tea Projects Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China from 1999 to 2019
    XIONG Xingping, ZHANG Xinzhong, YANG Zhenwei
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (3): 305-318.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.03.002
    Abstract1107)      PDF(pc) (380KB)(583)       Save
    Based on the tea projects supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) from 1999 to 2019, a statistical analysis was carried out from the aspects of supporting year, category, department, nature of the supporting units, distribution of the supporting regions, project leaders and branches of disciplines. The current situation, characteristics and development trends of basic tea research in China were explored and the existing problems and shortcomings were discussed and analyzed. The purpose of study was to provide reference for the selection of ideas and scientific research development for tea scientists.
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    Transcriptome Analysis of the Tea Leaves (Camellia sinensis var. assamica) Infected by Tea Blister Blight
    SUN Yunnan, XU Yan, RAN Longxun, JIANG Huibing, SONG Weixi, XIA Lifei, CHEN Linbo, LIANG Mingzhi
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (1): 113-124.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.01.001
    Abstract657)      PDF(pc) (798KB)(571)       Save
    Illumina HiSeq2500, a high-through transcriptome sequencing technology, was applied for transcriptome analysis of tea leaves infected by tea blister blight. Through differential expression analysis, a total of 359 differentially expressed genes (DEGs)were identified after infection, of which 248 were up-regulated and 111 were down-regulated. With GO function annotation classifications, a total of 216 genes were divided into 122 function categories. The mainly involved functional categories included biological synthesis process, catalytic activity, cell process and many other physiological and biochemical processes. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that a total of 106 genes were annotated to 47 metabolic pathways, with monoterpenoid biosynthesis, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, ribosome, nitrogen metabolism, diterpenoid biosynthesis, plant-pathogen interaction pathway significantly enriched. There were 32 differentially expressed transcription factors (TFs). Those TFs were classified into 16 families. qRT-PCR of randomly selected differentially expressed genes was used to validate transcriptome result, which showed high consistence. The result shows that tea tree response to pathogen infection is a complicated process. A number of genes were induced or suppressed. Disease-resistant transcription factors were highly activated and up-regulated. This study provided a theoretical basis for identifying tea resistance genes and potential molecular mechanism.
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    Study and Prospect of Soil Acidification Causes and Improvement Measures in Tea Plantation
    FAN Zhanhui, TANG Xiaojun, ZHENG Dan, YANG Qin, CHEN Guangnian, LI Xiaowen, SUN Jiabin
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (1): 15-25.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.20200117.006
    Abstract909)      PDF(pc) (364KB)(570)       Save
    In recent years, the acidification of tea garden soil has become increasingly serious due to the influences of internal and external factors. Soil acidification of tea plantation mainly manifests as soil structural deterioration, reduced fertility and increased heavy metal content. These variations can affect the growth and development of tea trees and reduce the tea quality, and may even harm human health, seriously threaten the sustainable development of tea plantation. This paper reviewed the research advance on soil acidification of tea plantations in recent years, summarized the causes, harms and improvement measures for soil acidification, and finally proposed the future research directions.
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    Biochemical and Molecular Biological Basis on The Anticarcinogenic Activity of Tea Polyphenolic Compounds
    CHEN Zong-mao
    Journal of Tea Science    2003, 23 (2): 83-93.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2003.02.001
    Abstract500)      PDF(pc) (496KB)(570)       Save
    The progress in the investigation of anticarcinogenic activity of tea polyphenols and its biochemical and molecular biological mechanisms in the world in recent 5 years were analyzed and reviewed in this paper. The mechanism of anticarcinogenic activity was discussed from the following 5 aspects: antioxidative activity, modulation on the key enzymes, blockage of signal transduction, antiangiogenic activity and the apotopsis of cancer cells. The developmental prospect and the investigational tendency of tea polyphenols in the future were discussed.
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    Cited: Baidu(44)
    A Review on the Technique of Tea Decaffeination
    XU Yong-quan, YIN Jun-feng, YUAN Hai-bo, CHEN Jian-xin, WANG Fang
    Journal of Tea Science    2008, 28 (1): 1-8.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2008.01.001
    Abstract559)      PDF(pc) (367KB)(561)       Save
    It is reported that tea has many medical functions. However, consumers prefer decaffeinated tea and tea products due to caffeine’s negative disadvantageous. Decaffeination is realized by different methods, including the traditional methods such as water decaffeination, solvent extraction, adsorption separating and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. The recent developmental microbial and enzymatic degradation and breeding low caffeine tea varieties are also developed for removal of caffeine. The investigation on tea decaffeination was reviewed, and the feasibility was discussed in this paper. The techniques of water decaffeination combined with adsorption separating, microbial and enzymatic degradation as well as low caffeine tea breeding were regarded as the main developmental direction of tea decaffeination by the authors.
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    Cited: Baidu(15)
    Determination of the Total Content of Polyphenols in Kudincha by Folin-Ciocalteu Colorimetry
    LIU Li-xiang, Tanguy Laura, LIANG Xing-fei, SUN Yi, YE Hong, ZENG Xiao-xiong
    Journal of Tea Science    2008, 28 (2): 101-106.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2008.02.006
    Abstract462)      PDF(pc) (236KB)(557)       Save
    A quantitative method for the determination of the total content of polyphenols in kudincha was studied by using FC method (Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetry ) with chlorogenic acid as standard. The results showed that the total polyphenol contents of kudincha could be well calculated according to their colorimetric absorption at 747 nm by applying Folin-Ciocalteu reagent 3.0 ml and saturated Na2CO3 4.5 ml at 30℃ for 30 min, and the linear range of standard curve was 20.0~100.0 mg/L. Stability, precision, repetition and recovery rate were in the range of 0.887%~1.416% by RSD (relative standard deviation). There are not any differences for the results obtained by FC method and ferrous tartrate colourimetry. Therefore, FC method is convenient, fast, and accurate to determine the total polyphenols of kudincha.
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    Cited: Baidu(51)
    Journal of Tea Science    1999, 19 (02): 93-103.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.1999.02.003
    Abstract472)      PDF(pc) (3755KB)(548)       Save
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    Study on the Chemical Constituents of Pu-erh Teas from Different Areas by UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS
    YANG Chen, DAI Weidong, LYU Meiling, LI Pengliang, LIU Xu, TIAN Jun, WAN Yunlong, LI Ji, LIN Zhi
    Journal of Tea Science    2017, 37 (6): 605-615.  
    Abstract526)      PDF(pc) (1648KB)(547)       Save
    In order to fully understand the influences of the production area on pu-erh raw tea quality and chemical composition, 12 pu-erh raw tea samples were selected from different mountains (villages) in Lincang, Pu'er, and Xishuangbanna. The nonvolatile tea metabolite phenotypes of the pu-erh raw teas were analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-four (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS). The results showed that the pu-erh raw teas from different areas had distinct chemical compositions. Pu-erh raw teas from Xishuangbanna (including Mengla, Menghai, and Jinghong), Pu'er, and Lincang could be seperated by principal component analysis. Pu-erh raw teas could also be seperated according to producing areas (southeast, southwest, and northwest of pu-erh tea area). Seventy nine main components in pu-erh raw teas were identified, and the relationships between the components and the taste qualities of the 12 pu-erh raw teas were also analyzed. This study showed that the metabolite phenotypes analyzed by UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS could be used for the discrimination of pu-erh raw teas according to producing areas.
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    Study on Chemistry and Bioactivities of Tea Polysaccharides
    XU Zhong-xi, WANG Kun-bo
    Journal of Tea Science    2004, 24 (2): 75-81.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2004.02.001
    Abstract391)      PDF(pc) (280KB)(540)       Save
    The recent researches have found that tea polysaccharide has many bioactivities, such as anti-thrombosis, reducing blood-sugar, blood-lipid and pressure depressing and strengthening the body's immunity. It can be used in curing diabetes and cardiovascular disorder as healthy foods and subsidiary medicine. The methods of extraction and purification, determination of purity and molecular weight, chemical composition, and bioactivities of tea polysaccharide are summarized.
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    Cited: Baidu(39)
    Study on Main Microbes on Quality Formation of Yunnan Puer Tea during Pile-fermentation Process
    ZHOU Hong-jie, LI Jia-hua, ZHAO Long-fei, Han Jun, YANG Xing-ji, YANG Wei, WU Xin-zhuang
    Journal of Tea Science    2004, 24 (3): 212-218.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2004.03.012
    Abstract599)      PDF(pc) (976KB)(536)       Save
    The investigation on microbes during the pile-fermentation process of Yunnan puer tea shows that the main microbes are Aspergillus niger, Penicllium, Rhizopus, Aspergillus gloucus, Saccharomyces, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus candidus, Bacterium etc. The number of Aspergillus niger is the most among them, and it produce glucoamylase, pectinase, cellulase ect. The next is Saccharomyces. Besides it possesses rich nutrition which is helpful to human heath, enzymatic system, physiologicial active substances, the yeast can produce vitamin B1, B2 and C etc. These microbes play direct and indirect roles on quality formation of puer tea.
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    Physiological and Molecular Mechanisms of Transmembrane Fluoride Uptake by Tea Roots
    XU Jiajia, GUANG Min, SHI Shulin, GAO Hongjian
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (4): 365-371.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.04.001
    Abstract736)      PDF(pc) (313KB)(534)       Save
    Tea plant is a fluoride hyper-accumulator and most of fluoride is accumulated in the leaves. Drinking tea is an important way to absorb fluoride for human, which affects human health. Fluoride is usually absorbed from the soil by tea roots. However, the physiological and molecular mechanisms of transmembrane fluoride uptake by the tea roots were still poorly documented. Therefore, this paper reviewed the active and passive pathways of fluoride uptake by the roots of tea. The active transmembrane uptake fluoride process and molecular mechanism by H+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase, the role and microscopic process of ion channel and Al-F complexation by passive fluoride uptake were analyzed. The main influencing factors and control measures of fluoride accumulation in tea roots were also investigated. In order to reveal the molecular mechanism of transmembrane fluoride uptake, regulate the selective fluoride uptake in tea roots, and ensure the tea quality and safety for consumption, cloning, expression, and functional verification of transport proteins and genes related to fluoride transmembrane uptake in tea plant should receive more attention in future studies.
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    Recent Advance on Quality Characteristics and Health Effects of Dark Tea
    WANG Ruru, XIAO Mengchao, LI Daxiang, LING Tiejun, XIE Zhongwen
    Journal of Tea Science    2018, 38 (2): 113-124.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.02.001
    Abstract656)      PDF(pc) (765KB)(525)       Save
    Dark tea is made from fresh leaves or mature shoots of tea plants (Camellia sinensis). Its manufacture process includes fixing, rolling, stacking and drying. The healthy benefits of dark tea attracted much attention. So far, a large number of in vitro experiments and animal model studies have revealed the potentially preventive effects of functional components in dark tea on some diseases, including hyperglycemia, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and many other diseases. During the past ten years, there had made a huge advance in research on functional components and healthy benefits of dark tea. These results not only provided a reliable theoretical basis for better understanding of health effects of dark tea, but also played an important role in promoting dark tea consumption. In this paper, the characteristics of dark tea and the progress of health effects of dark tea during the past five years were reviewed. The direction for future research was also proposed.
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    Cited: Baidu(2)
    Review on the Effect of Tea on Platelet Activation
    CHEN Ping, QIU Pei, CHENG Hao, ZHOU Ying, GONG Shuying
    Journal of Tea Science    2015, 35 (5): 458-464.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.05.008
    Abstract579)      PDF(pc) (592KB)(520)       Save
    Platelet activation is the basis of the incidence of many cardiovascular disease, antiplatelet drugs could block the cascade of platelet aggregation in different levels. As confirmed by clinical research and animal experiments, tea and tea ingredients can inhibit platelet aggregation. Catechins exhibit a structure-activity relationship in antiplatelet effect. This review summarized recent progress in the effect of tea and tea ingredients on platelet activity or platelet aggregation in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo, and also the effect on thrombus and coagulation system. The mechanism of anti-aggregatory effect of tea is explored, which provide further confirmation for its antithrombotic function and the preventive effect for cardiovascular disease.
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    Development Trends and Technical Requirements of Tea Beverage in China Mainland
    YIN Jun-feng, XU Yong-quan, YUAN Hai-bo
    Journal of Tea Science    2010, 30 (S1): 588-592.  
    Abstract315)      PDF(pc) (204KB)(520)       Save
    Through discussing the development model of beverage in the world and analyzing the development trends of tea beverage industry in China mainland, the main technical requirements for promoting development of tea beverage in China mainland are put forward.
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    Cited: Baidu(10)
    Research Advance of Tea Plant Genome and Sequencing Technologies
    WANG Pengjie, YANG Jiangfan, ZHANG Xingtan, YE Naixing
    Journal of Tea Science    2021, 41 (6): 743-752.  
    Abstract759)      PDF(pc) (564KB)(511)       Save
    The tea plant has the characteristics of high heterozygosity, large genome and high duplication, which has led to the slow progress of the preliminary research on the tea plant genomes. The rapid development of genome sequencing technologies has strongly promoted the deciphering and improvement of the tea plant genomes. This article reviewed the development of genome sequencing technologies, and classified the assembly and research progress of tea plant genomes in recent years according to the draft level, chromosome level and haplotype level. By discussing the future application and development direction of tea plant genomes, it provided a reference for the functional genomics research and precision molecular breeding in tea plants.
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    Recent Advances in Catechin Biomedical Nanomaterials
    YU Rongxin, ZHENG Qinqin, CHEN Hongping, ZHANG Jinsong, ZHANG Xiangchun
    Journal of Tea Science    2022, 42 (4): 447-462.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2022.04.004
    Abstract425)      PDF(pc) (2659KB)(511)       Save
    Catechins are a kind of bioactive substances rich in tea, which have the functions of anti-oxidation, anti-tumor, anti-virus, anti-inflammatory and immune regulation. However, due to the high activity of phenolic hydroxyl groups, catechins are easy to lose in vitro and in vivo activities, resulting in lower bioavailability. The recent development of nanobiotechnologies is expected to solve the problem of low bioavailability of catechins through ligand design, accurate synthesis and intelligent regulation, which can expand its application in the field of life and health. In this review, a summary on the progress of catechin biomedical nanomaterials in recent years, including the anti-tumor, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, drug delivery and anti-virus activities, was firstly made. Later, the construction and biological mechanism of catechin biomedical nanomaterials were discussed in detail. Finally, future perspectives on the design and application of novel catechin nanomaterials were provided.
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    An Analysis of the Spiritual Core and Value of the Chinese Tea Culture: A Case Study of Etiquette, Customs, Ceremonies and Traditions of Chinese Tea
    ZHOU Zhixiu, XUE Chen, RUAN Haogeng
    Journal of Tea Science    2021, 41 (2): 272-284.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.20210406.001
    Abstract796)      PDF(pc) (555KB)(506)       Save
    In the Chinese tea cultural system, the etiquette, customs, ceremonies and literatures of tea are interactive and complementary, which build up the major part of Chinese tea culture and become important media of its spiritual core as well. In this paper, the etiquette, customs, ceremonies and literatures of Chinese tea, as an example, are disserted in the aspects of its historical formation and forms. On the basis of previous research, the spirit of Chinese tea culture is investigated, of which the core is concluded as Harmony, Respect, Rectitude, Beauty and Reality, realizing the sublimation from the physical to the spiritual level. The inheritance, promotion and development of Chinese tea culture and its spiritual core are of critically important era value for guiding the construction of socialist core value, firming the confidence in national culture and building a harmonious society.
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    Effects of Polyphenols of Old Fu Brick Tea on the Elderly Intestinal Flora
    WU Genliang, HOU Aixiang, LI Ke, LI Zongjun
    Journal of Tea Science    2018, 38 (3): 319-330.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.03.013
    Abstract482)      PDF(pc) (1529KB)(504)       Save
    To reveal the influences of tea polyphenols of old Fu brick teas on the diversity and composition of intestinal microflora in the elderly, the tea polyphenols were extracted and purified from Fu brick teas stored for 1 year and 7 years, and the isometric tea polyphenol extracts were added into the mixed medium of intestinal flora of elderly men (65 years) for the anaerobic static culture in vitro. The contents of tea polyphenols and short chain fatty acids(SCFAs)of the seven years’ tea group(O group), one year’s tea group(N group) and the blank group(B group) were determined at 0βh, 4βh, 8βh, 12βh and 24βh. High-throughput sequencing of intestinal flora and relative bioinformatics analysis were also performed. The results showed that the polyphenols of seven years’ Fu brick tea had better effects on the increase of SCFA contents, the abundance and diversity of the intestinal flora of the elderly as compared with the control. The relative abundance of Escherichia and γ-Proteobacteria_B38 at 4βh and 12βh were significantly reduced, and the relative abundance of Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium and Faecalibacterium were also increased in O group. The above results showed that the tea polyphenol of seven years’ Fu brick tea is more beneficial to the improvement of intestinal microflora in the elderly, which was of a high potential value to the health of elderly.
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    Research Advances on the Drought-Resistance Mechanism and Strategy of Tea Plant
    LIU Shengchuan, CHEN Liang
    Journal of Tea Science    2014, 34 (2): 111-121.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2014.02.001
    Abstract656)      PDF(pc) (975KB)(498)       Save
    Drought is one of the pivotal meteorological disasters affecting tea production. Responses of tea plant to drought and rehydration are very complex, so it is vital to study drought-resistance mechanism for exploring relative genetic resources, improving water use efficiency and drought resistance, developing water-saving and drought-resistance cultivation and subsequent reducing losses. Here, effects of drought stress on growth, development, production and quality of tea were presented. We try to provide a brief insight into how tea plant responds to drought and rehydration. Some recent studies on strategies for water-saving and drought-resistance cultivation and subsequent recovery had been reviewed, and major research trends were discussed.
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    Construction of Green Tea Recognition Model Based on ResNet Convolutional Neural Network
    ZHANG Yi, ZHAO Zhumeng, WANG Xiaochang, FENG Haiqiang, LIN Jie
    Journal of Tea Science    2021, 41 (2): 261-271.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2021.02.008
    Abstract795)      PDF(pc) (2020KB)(497)       Save
    Green tea is the tea with the largest variety and output in China. Its appearance is an important basis for its classification. Image classification is one of the core technologies of computer vision, but its application in tea field is almost blank. Tea recognition still relies on the sensory evaluation methods by experts. This study collected 1713 pictures of 8 kinds of green tea (Lishui Xiangcha, Xinyang Maojian, Lu'an Guapian, Taiping Houkui, Anji Baicha, Biluochun, Zhuyeqing and Longjing). Based on the convolutional neural network, we explored the effects of ResNet model depth from the perspectives of model convergence speed, size, efficiency and identification balance. Finally, the ResNet-18 and SGD optimization algorithms were selected and a deep learning model was established to distinguish 8 kinds of green tea. The accuracy reached 90.99%, the recognition time of the single picture was only 0.098 s, and the model size was 43.7 MB. This paper provided the foundation for constructing a tea visual recognition model and applying it to the mobile terminals and provided a new accurate and efficient method for tea recognition.
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    Recent Advance on Anti-cardiovascular Inflammation of Major Characteristic Compounds in Tea
    YAO Min, LI Daxiang, XIE Zhongwen
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (1): 1-14.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.20191202.004
    Abstract793)      PDF(pc) (632KB)(497)       Save
    Chronic inflammation is one of the important causes of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension and myocardial infarction. Inflammatory factors such as IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β can induce many cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis and abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Tea is rich in characteristic compounds. These compounds play preventive and therapeutic roles for cardiovascular diseases by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokines production, and regulating the signal pathways such as NF-κB, MAPK and Tolls-like receptors. In this review, we summarized the recent advance of the main characteristic compounds in tea on preventing inflammation related cardiovascular diseases.
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    Study on the Changes of Physical and Chemical Components during the Frying Process of Green Tea by Computer Vision
    WU Xun, LIU Fei, CHEN Zhiwei, WANG Yuwan, CHEN Lin, TU Zheng, ZHOU Xiaofen, YANG Yunfei, YE Yang, TONG Huarong
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (2): 194-204.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.02.006
    Abstract649)      PDF(pc) (965KB)(494)       Save
    In order to find out the physical and chemical changes during the frying process of green tea, the computer vision technology was applied to real-time monitor the changes of color and shape, and chemical changes were simultaneously measured. The results show that with the increase of frying time, (1) the radius of curvature of unfinished tea gradually decreased, which showed the highest decreasing rate from 10-30 min. R, G, B and average gray value decreased first and then rose. The consistency value was opposite to their trends, with the extreme value in 20 min. H value increased significantly, S value decreased significantly. (2) Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin (EGC), chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids decreased significantly, while gallocatechin gallate (GCG) increased significantly. Experimental results show that the radius of curvature was highly correlated with water content and leaf temperature. H was significantly correlated with chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b. S was significantly correlated with chlorophyll a, carotenoids and epicatechin gallate (ECG). The linear fit of EGCG and H values showed the highest value at 0.922 1. In the future, water content, leaf temperature and H value could be monitored online to predict changes of the radius of curvature and chemical composition during frying.
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    Research Progress of Near-infrared Spectroscopy in Tea Quality Control and Equipment Development
    REN Guangxin, JIN Shanshan, LI Luqing, NING Jingming, ZHANG Zhengzhu
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (6): 707-714.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.06.001
    Abstract880)      PDF(pc) (1236KB)(493)       Save
    Tea is an economic crop with Chinese characteristics and a high value-added natural beverage. Rapid and accurate nutrition diagnosis and quality monitoring are inevitable requirements for ensuring the quality of tea products. The limitations of traditional tea quality assessment methods and recent emerging rapid detection techniques were revealed in this study. The characteristics of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology and the evolution of keywords from the published studies on the application of the NIRS method in the field of tea were presented. The research progress on the rapid detection of key components of tea products, the quality control of tea products, the development of the digital fast NIRS analyzer, and the development of technical standards were reviewed in detail. The development directions of the NIRS technology in the field of tea analysis were proposed and discussed.
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    Advances in Research on the Regulation of Tea Polyphenols and Effects on Intestinal Flora
    ZHOU Fang, OUYANG Jian, HUANG Jian'an, LIU Zhonghua
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (6): 619-630.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.06.001
    Abstract653)      PDF(pc) (604KB)(490)       Save
    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is an abnormal multi-metabolic disease that comprises a combination of various diseases such as hypertension, abnormal blood sugar, dyslipidemia and obesity. Tea polyphenols (TPs) are the characteristics secondary metabolites in tea leaves. The latest studies show that TPs can improve the disorder of gut flora (GF) and modulate the co-metabolism of Host-GF by the intervention & treatment to achieve the goal of improving MS. This paper systematically summarized the absorption and metabolism of TPs and the effects of TPs on GF in in vitro fermentation models, animal experiments, and clinical trials. The underlying mechanism among TPs-GF-Host was described, which would facilitate further exploring the effects of TPs on human health based on the theory of intestinal flora and developing functional products of TPs. In addition, it also provided theoretical foundation for developing functional products associating with TPs.
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    Dynamics of Scent Type and Aroma Components of Wuyi Dahongpao during the Preliminary Processing
    WANG Fang, ZHANG Jianming, LI Bo, CHEN Baiwen, LIU Baoshun, ZHAN Shiquan, LIU Shizhang
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (4): 455-463.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.04.011
    Abstract686)      PDF(pc) (458KB)(481)       Save
    The aroma components of tea leaves of Wuyi Dahongpao during the preliminary processing were investigated by headspace solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results show that compared to the fresh leaves, the aroma component contents of alkanes, aldehydes and ketones such as nonaldehyde, tetradecane, tridecane, dodecane, butyl-2-ethyl-1,2,3-propyltriester, di-tert-dodecyl disulfide and orange blossom tert acetate were decreased drastically during the preliminary processing, which were decreased by 72.4%, 91.8% and 63.6% in the raw made tea, respectively. The alcohol, ester and olefin aroma components such as nerolidol, alpha olefin, indole, phenylacetonitrile, phenylethyl alcohol, caproic acid ester, hexanoic acid-shun 3-hexene ester, hexanoic acid-2-hexene ester and benzoic acid ester, acid-3-hexene-1-ester, and benzoic acid 2-hexene ester were largely increased during the preliminary process. The alcohol, ester and olefin aroma components involved in the characteristic flavor of Dahongpao were increased by 215.5%, 70.8% and 682.6% in the raw made tea respectively.
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    Review on Tea Sediment Formation and Its Controlling Methods
    XU Yongquan, YIN Junfeng
    Journal of Tea Science    2016, 36 (4): 337-346.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2016.04.001
    Abstract644)      PDF(pc) (689KB)(478)       Save
    Sediment easily forms during the process and storage of tea beverage, instant tea powder and concentrated tea, which not only has an unattractive appearance, but also detracts from the flavor quality of tea products. However, there are no clear forming mechanism and controlling methods of tea sediment because the forming of tea sediment is rather complicated and lacks satisfactory solution. And at present, most of tea beverage producers remove tea sediment or inhibit tea sediment formation by physically removal or chemically de-creaming. These methods not only cause a great loss of active ingredients and decrease healthy functions, but also influence the appearance and inherent quality of the products, and then hinder the development of Chinese tea-beverage industry. Tea cream, the turbid phenomenon produces when tea infusion cools, is the previous process of tea sediment formation. It was reported that tea sediment can be divided into reversible and irreversible sediment. And their chemical constituents, formation mechanism and influencing factors were distinctly different. In order to effectively control the sediment in tea beverage, this paper summarizes the chemical components participating in tea sediment formation, the factors and the mechanism of tea sediment formation, and the controlling methods.
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    Research Advances of Fluoride Accumulation Mechanisms in Tea Plants (Camellia sinensis)
    XING Anqi, WU Zichen, XU Xiaohan, SUN Yi, WANG Genmei, WANG Yuhua
    Journal of Tea Science    2022, 42 (3): 301-315.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.20220416.003
    Abstract881)      PDF(pc) (876KB)(474)       Save
    Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze is a hyper fluoride (F) accumulation plant, whose F content in tea leaves is much higher than other plants, without any toxic symptoms. However, F is not an essential element for tea plant growth, and under high F stress, F affects the normal growth of plants by destroying the cell structure and inhibiting enzyme activities. In order to provide a theoretical basis for the future study of F accumulation in tea plants, the research progresses in the absorption, enrichment and accumulation/detoxification mechanisms of F in tea plants were reviewed.
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    Comparative Study of the Aroma Components of Several Oolong Teas
    JI Weibin, LIU Panpan, XU Yongquan, JIANG Yongwen, CHEN Jianxin, YIN Junfeng
    Journal of Tea Science    2016, 36 (5): 523-530.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2016.05.011
    Abstract492)      PDF(pc) (900KB)(472)       Save
    Oolong teas are mainly produced in the south and north of Fujian, Guangdong and Taiwan, and they have unique aroma qualities in different producing districts. The sensory evaluation and HS-SPME/GC-MS were applied to analyze the aroma qualities and aroma components of typical Oolong teas from the four producing districts in this study. The results showed that, the main aroma components include alcohol, ketone, aldehyde, ester, hydrocarbon, phenols and nitrogenous compounds. However, the aroma components of the Oolong teas from different districts showed large differences. Trans-nerolidol (40.96%) and α-farnesene (20.00%) were found as the major aroma components of high-mountain Oolong tea from Taiwan. While trans-nerolidol (46.22%), indole (15.20%) and α-farnesene (23.01%) were found as the major aroma components of fresh scent-flavor Tieguanyin from south of Fujian province. Linalool and its oxidates (11.87%), ionones (5.26%) and 3-hexenyl ester, (z)-hexanoic acid (5.05%) were the major aroma components of Shuixian from north of Fujian province, and trans-nerolidol (31.43%) and indole (35.83%) were found as the major aroma components of Wuye dancong from Guangdong province. The aroma
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    Cited: Baidu(2)
    HPLC Quantitation of Theaflavins in Tea Pigments
    LI Da-xiang, WAN Xiao-chun, LIU Li-hua, XIA Tao
    Journal of Tea Science    2004, 24 (2): 124-128.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2004.02.010
    Abstract410)      PDF(pc) (274KB)(471)       Save
    In this study, theaflavin(TF1), theaflavin monogallate(TF2+TF3) and theaflavin digallate(TF4) in tea pigments are isolated and purified with high speed counter current chromatography combined with Sephadex LH-20 and semi-preparative HPLC. With the purified theaflavin, the standard curves have been set up by HPLC for theaflavins quantitation. The results on the accuracy and recovery determination showed that the coefficient of variation of TF1, TF2+TF3, TF4 and total theaflavins range from 2.6’8.5%, 2.0’3.8%, 2.0’3.9% and 2.2’4.1% respectively. Using HPLC quantitation, the relative error of total theaflavins amounts in the standard theaflavins from Sigma company is 3.4%. The total amounts of theaflavins in tea pigments are 20.5%, in which TF1, TF2+TF3 and TF4 are 6.0%, 9.1% and 5.4% respectively. This method is useful to quantify theaflavins and to control the quality of tea pigments, which could promote the studies on their pharmacological effects.
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    Cited: Baidu(16)
    The Mechanism of the Lipid-lowering Effect of Tea by Regulating the SREBP
    PAN Lianyun, LU Yan, GONG Yushun
    Journal of Tea Science    2018, 38 (1): 102-111.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.01.011
    Abstract383)      PDF(pc) (1101KB)(469)       Save
    Tea has a lipid-lowering effect through regulating lipid metabolism in different tissues and inhibiting digestion and absorption of lipid. The lipid metabolism pathway affects the synthesis and decomposition of lipid and fat decreasing through regulating the expression of Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins (SREBPs) and its relative factors.
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    Journal of Tea Science    2002, 22 (01): 57-61.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2002.01.012
    Abstract387)      PDF(pc) (41KB)(466)       Save
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    Correlation Analysis Between Selenium Accumulation in Tea Leaves and Soil Factors in Selenium-rich Areas
    ZHANG Haojie, HAO Xinyuan, ZHOU Chao, WANG Lu, WANG Xinchao, YANG Yajun, ZENG Jianming, SUN Lengxue, DAI Juhui, XIANG Jun, LUO Hong, WANG Chaoyang, ZHANG Xiangui, LIU Tao
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (4): 465-477.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.04.003
    Abstract485)      PDF(pc) (2170KB)(466)       Save
    Tea plant is a selenium-rich species and selenium-enriched tea products consumption is a safe and effective way to replenish selenium. Though the selenium content in fresh tea leaves can be affected by many environmental factors, selenium accumulation characteristics and main influencing factors of tea plants in selenium-rich areas were rarely reported. In this study, adult tea plants and rhizosphere soils from tea plantations in Enshi, Hubei and Ankang, Shaanxi were taken as research objects. Combined with various indicators such as total selenium content in soil and plant samples, the effect of selenium content in rhizosphere soil on the accumulation characteristics of selenium in tea plant was clarified. In addition, the importance of 9 important soil characteristics related factors such as soil pH and selenium content in selenium-rich areas were analyzed. Through grouping and overall correlation analysis of 186 representative soil samples and fresh tea samples, it was confirmed that there was a significant correlation between the total selenium contents in teas and soils (correlation coefficient r=0.59, P<0.01). Moreover, the total selenium content in tea was also significantly related to organic matter, hydrolysable nitrogen, zinc contents in soil and sulfur, zinc contents in shoots. The related factors of selenium content in soils and teas in Ankang and Enshi areas were also analyzed. A reliable mathematical model of selenium content in tea shoots on soil organic matter, sulfur, selenium and zinc contents was proposed. The goodness of fit was 0.512 6, reaching a highly significant level (P<0.01). The above results were of great significance to improve the production technology of selenium-enriched fresh tea leaves in selenium-enriched tea areas and further revealed the selenium accumulation mechanism in tea plants.
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    Anticancer Activity of Theaflavin Diagallate and its Mechanism
    JIANG He-yuan, Hang Xiao, YUAN Xin-yue, WANG Chuan-pi, Chung S Yang
    Journal of Tea Science    2007, 27 (1): 33-38.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2007.01.005
    Abstract368)      PDF(pc) (406KB)(460)       Save
    Theaflavin digallate was purified by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Its anticancer activity and mechanism were analyzed on H1299 and HCT-116 cancer cell lines. Results from MTT assay showed that Theaflavin digallate could inhibit the growth of H1299, and its IC50 value is 25μmol/L. Theaflavin digallate could slightly adjust the cell cycle of HCT-116 cancer cell, and significantly promote the apoptosis of HCT-116 cancer cell at 50μmol/L. Theaflavin digallagte could decrease the expression of cancer-promoting biomarker, Bcl-xL, and increase the expression of cancer-inhibiting biomarker, Bax, on HCT-116 cancer cell line.
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    Cited: Baidu(19)
    Research Progress and Prospect on Computer Vision Technology Application in Tea Production
    HUANG Fan, LIU Fei, WANG Yun, LUO Fan
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (1): 81-87.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.01.009
    Abstract775)      PDF(pc) (578KB)(454)       Save
    As a non-destructive, real-time, fast, objective and economical detection method, computer vision technology had been gradually applied in tea production including cultivation, plant protection processing, evaluation and other fields, which had made great progress. This paper briefly described the principle, current status and development prospects of computer vision technology in tea industry, which provided a reference for further application of computer vision technology in tea industry.
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    Review on the Changes of Biochemical Components and the Influencing Factors in Piling Process of Yellow Tea
    HUA Jinjie, JIANG Yongwen, YUAN Haibo, YIN Junfeng, ZHONG Weibiao, YU Shuping, XIE Qiantu
    Journal of Tea Science    2015, 35 (3): 203-208.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.03.001
    Abstract392)      PDF(pc) (498KB)(451)       Save
    During the piling process, dramatic changes of biochemical components in tea leaves are occurred under heat and humid effects: the content of chlorophyll drops sharply under oxidative degradation reactions, the composition and proportion of catechins are significantly changed under oxidation and isomerization reactions, the contents of amino acids and soluble sugar are also been changed. These changes provide an important material foundation for the unique quality formation of yellow tea: yellow soup, yellow leaves, mellow taste, etc. This paper reviewed the dynamic variation of quality biochemical compositions and microorganism in the piling process, the key influencing factors of piling process, as well as puts the prospects for the future research trends of piling technology.
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    Cited: Baidu(9)
    Twenty Years Period in the Investigation on the Anticarcinogenic Activity of Tea
    CHEN Zong-mao
    Journal of Tea Science    2009, 29 (3): 173-190.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2009.3.001
    Abstract457)      PDF(pc) (462KB)(450)       Save
    The progress in the investigation on anticarcinogenic activity of tea polyphenols in the world was analyzed and reviewed in this paper. The inhibitory activity of tea extracts on the human cancer cell was firstly reported by Fujiki H in 1987 in Japan. Since then, around 5000 papers on the anticarcinogenic activity of tea were published in the world. According to the published results of investigation, four stages were divided by the author. From the period of the end of 1980’s to the middle of 1990’s, the major investigation was focused on the in vitro and in vivo investigation and clinical investigation. From the period of the middle of 1990’s to the beginning of 21 Century, the major investigation was focused on the epidemiological investigation and the anticarcinogenic mechanism. Since the beginning of 21st Century, investigation was continuing on the anticarcinogenic mechanism on the first hand, and the metabolism and fate of catechins in the animal and human body were investigated. Since 2004, the investigation on the modification of chemical structure of tea catechins was conducted for the purpose of improving the bioavailability, stability and bioactivity of tea catechins in human body. This paper is mainly reviewed from the published literature after 2003 from the following five parts: results on the epidemiological investigations, anticarcinogenic mechanism, the active components of anticarcinogenic activity in tea, results on the metabolism and fate of tea catechins in animal and human body, modification of chemical structure of tea catechins and its bioavailability and bioactivity.
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    Cited: Baidu(11)
    Present Status and Development Trends of Research on Tea Polysaccharides
    LI Yan, LIN Yongfeng, LIU Wenmei, ZOU Zehua, LIU Guangming, LIU Qingmei
    Journal of Tea Science    2023, 43 (4): 447-459.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2023.04.001
    Abstract259)      PDF(pc) (475KB)(449)       Save
    Tea polysaccharides are important active ingredients in tea. Studying the properties of tea polysaccharides and promoting the development of tea polysaccharides products will benefit both the tea industry and the health industry. In the present paper, literatures related to tea polysaccharides from the Web of Science database over the past decade were visually analyzed. The results show that the overall number of papers related to tea polysaccharides showed an increasing trend from 2013 to 2022. The co-occurrence, emergence and frequency analysis of keywords show that the antioxidant activities of tea polysaccharides are a continuous research hotspot, which may also be one of the main trends in future research. At present, global research on tea polysaccharides mainly focuses on the physicochemical properties including monosaccharide composition, solubility, emulsification and biological activities such as antioxidation, anticancer and antidiabetic. Although tea polysaccharides exhibit a variety of biological activities, the underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. Recent studies have shown that tea polysaccharides can exert probiotic potential by affecting gut microbiota. In addition, the transformation and development of tea polysaccharide-related products are particularly insufficient. In the future, researchers can focus on developing biofilm products, drug delivery vehicles and functional foods using tea polysaccharides. Overall, the present paper summarized the main contents and hot spots in the field of tea polysaccharides, aiming to serve as a reference for researchers in this field as well as for the development of the tea polysaccharide industry.
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    Research Progress of Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis) Growth under Light Regulation
    GAI Shujie, WANG Yixiong, LI Lan, LIU Shuoqian, LI Yinhua, CHENG Xiao, XIA Mao, LIU Zhonghua, ZHOU Zhi
    Journal of Tea Science    2022, 42 (6): 753-767.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2022.06.005
    Abstract453)      PDF(pc) (882KB)(443)       Save
    The growth and development of tea plants are affected by external environmental factors, and light is one of the most important factors, which can affect the growth and secondary metabolites of tea plants alone or in coordination with other environmental factors such as temperature, etc. This paper introduced the research progress of light regulation of tea plant growth and metabolic at domestic and abroad in recent years. The main points of discussion were the effects of different spectral bands, photon flux and photoperiod on tea plant growth, types and contents of metabolites. It’s mainly for clarifying the light regulated metabolic process of tea plant growth, analyzing the light regulated mechanism, and providing theoretical support for the development of light regulated metabolic technology that can be used in production practice.
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    The Trade & Dissemination of China Dark Tea
    JI Xiao-ming
    Journal of Tea Science    2006, 26 (3): 159-165.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2006.03.001
    Abstract346)      PDF(pc) (316KB)(438)       Save
    Dark tea has been a great part of traditional China tea. The historical trade way and the market evolution of the main kinds of dark tea, which are from Hunan, Hubei, Sichuan, Yunnan, Guangxi, were discussed according to a great deal of historical records. The author believed that dark tea originated from Ya’an, and put forward some opinion and argument. The author also discussed the relationship of tea trade and historical trade achievement in northwest. The important historical role and affects on Chinese politics, economy, and culture were discussed in the paper, too.
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    Effects of Co-fermentation by Eurotium cristatum and Lactobacillus plantarum on the Quality of Green Tea Liquid Beverage
    TU Zheng, MEI Huiling, LI Huan, LIU Xinqiu, Emmanuel Arkorful, ZHANG Caili, CHEN Xuan, SUN Kang, LI Xinghui
    Journal of Tea Science    2018, 38 (5): 496-507.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.05.007
    Abstract610)      PDF(pc) (1244KB)(435)       Save
    In order to inhibit the degradation of catechins in fermented green tea liquid beverage fermented by E. cristatum, the co-fermentation of L. plantarum and E. cristatum to green tea liquid beverage was conducted. The processing technology was optimized by response surface methodology. Besides, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and headspace solid-phase microextraction tandem mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GS-MS) method were used to detect the catechin contents and aroma components in the combined fermented green tea liquid beverage. The results showed that under the premise of 10βg·L-1 of dry tea and 10βmL·L-1 of E. cristatum, the optimal technological conditions for the combined fermentation of green tea liquid beverage were L. plantarum 20βmL·L-1, sucrose 75βg·L-1, and stationary fermentation at 30℃ for 3 days. The total catechin concentration in the joint fermented green tea liquid beverage under this process was 1β419.94βμg·mL-1, which was significantly higher than unfermented green tea liquid beverage (848.72βμg·mL-1) (P<0.05). And the contents of alcohol compounds (30.27%), aldehyde compounds (15.25%), hydrocarbon compounds (11.35%), ester compounds (9.86%) and ketone compounds (9.01%) were significantly increased (P<0.05) compared with unfermented green tea liquid beverage.
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    Review and Prospect on the Research of Spider Ecology in Chinese Tea Garden
    GAO Yu, SUN Xiao-ling, JIN Shan, ZHANG Zheng-qun, BIAN Lei, LUO Zong-xiu, CHEN Zong-mao
    Journal of Tea Science    2012, 32 (2): 160-166.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2012.02.001
    Abstract441)      PDF(pc) (629KB)(434)       Save
    Spiders which are abundant in Chinese tea plantations are the most important species of natural enemy for controlling the populations of many pests. Spider ecology in tea gardens of china was corresponding to the investigation on the development of pest control by spiders. The spider taxa and the dynamics on major pests population in tea gardens, community diversity of spiders, the influences of cultivation and methods of management to the community diversity, the impact of ecological factors on the spider, predatory behavior ecology and chemical ecology of spider were briefly reviewed in this paper. Furthermore, the new development of spider ecology in tea gardens of china in recent years was also summarized. Chemical ecology of spider would be an important aspect on the research and development of biological control in tea garden in future.
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    Cited: Baidu(7)
    Prevention of Tea Polyphenols on Atherosclerosis and Relative Mechanisms
    ZHANG Shuping, WANG Yuefei, XU Ping
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (3): 231-246.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.03.001
    Abstract998)      PDF(pc) (914KB)(434)    PDF(mobile) (748KB)(100)    Save
    Atherosclerosis is the pathological basis of many cardiovascular diseases. Its injury to the cardiovascular could cause damage to other organs. Numerous data had indicated that tea polyphenols have a good preventive effect on atherosclerosis, such as anti-inflammatory, regulating blood lipid levels, inhibiting LDL oxidation, improving endothelial function and maintaining the stability of atherosclerotic plaque. The aim of this article is to review the health benefits of tea polyphenols against atherosclerosis and to outline the molecular mechanisms of tea polyphenols in atherosclerosis prevention.
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    Parameter Optimization and Experimental Study of Tea Twisting Machine Based on EDEM
    LI Bing, LI Weining, BAI Xuanbing, HUANG Jianhong
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (3): 375-385.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.03.008
    Abstract547)      PDF(pc) (3748KB)(434)       Save
    To solve the problems caused by unstable quality in the process of tea twisting, the 6CR-40 tea twisting machine was taken as the research object in this study. The three-dimensional modeling of tea twisting machine was established based on Solidworks. The numerical simulation of the twisting process of tea twisting machine was carried out by the discrete element simulation software EDEM. The influences of various experimental factors on the performance indexes of tea twisting machine were obtained. The quadratic orthogonal rotation test was carried out and the Design-Expert was used to optimize the solution and obtain the best combination of structural parameters of twisting quality. The results showed that: when the twisting barrel rotational speed, the prismatic height, twisting plate inclination angles, forming rate of tea and breaking rate of tea were 42 r·min-1, 10 mm, 3.8°, 88.55% and 1.83% respectively, the tea twisting machine had a good quality of twisting. The results of verification test and simulation optimization were basically consistent.
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    Research Progress of Tea Polysaccharides in Regulating Obesity
    OUYANG Jian, ZHOU Fang, LU Danmin, LI Xiuping, HUANG Jian'an, LIU Zhonghua
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (5): 565-575.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.05.001
    Abstract630)      PDF(pc) (422KB)(433)       Save
    With the improvement of people's living standards, the incidence of obesity has been rising, which has become a serious health problem of the society. Tea polysaccharide, as an acid heteropolysaccharide combined with protein, can regulate food intake and energy absorption, regulate adipogenesis, enhance antioxidant defense enzyme activities and reduce inflammation, regulate intestinal flora disorders and maintain different pathways such as intestinal barrier integrity, thereby effectively regulates obesity. The regulation mechanism of tea polysaccharides on obesity was reviewed based on the researches in recent years.
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    The Effect of Red Light Withering on the Volatile Components of Tea Leaves and the Quality of Black Tea Product
    LIN Jiazheng, TU Zheng, CHEN Lin, YE Yang, LIU Fei, WANG Yuwan, YANG Yunfei, WU Xun, LYU Haowei
    Journal of Tea Science    2021, 41 (3): 393-405.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2021.03.006
    Abstract761)      PDF(pc) (1658KB)(432)       Save
    Red light withering contributes to the formation of tea aroma. However, the effect of different red light quality on the volatile components of withered tea and the quality of the black tea product after processing remains to be studied. In this study, headspace solid phase micro extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to detect and analyze the volatile components of withered leaves under different light treatments such as dark, red light (630 nm, 1 000 lx, 3 000 lx), natural light (260-325 lx), and the dynamic changes of the volatile components of withered leaves and red light withered differential volatile substances under different light treatments were studied. The results show that a total of 130 volatile components were detected in withered leaves at different time periods, including 26 alcohols, 33 esters, 29 hydrocarbons, 12 aldehydes, 13 ketones, and 17 others. Comparing different light withering methods, it was found that the total content of volatile components in the red light 3 000 lx group pre-mid withering period (The first 8 h) were significantly higher than that in other groups. With the increase of red light intensity, the total content of esters increased significantly (P<0.05), while the total content of ketones decreased significantly (P<0.05). Through orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, the variable projection importance factor was greater than 1 and the coefficient of variation was greater than 50%, 5 volatile components were screened out with the greater response to red light, including 1,2-dimethylpropyl-2-methyl-butanoic acid ester, 1-isocyano-3-methyl-benzene, decanal, 2-methyl-2-decanol, linoleic acid ethyl ester. Among them, the coefficient of variation of decanal was as high as 133.34% under red light 1 000 lx. The results of this study could provide a scientific basis for the improvement of black tea aroma quality and targeted regulation.
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    Effects of Intercropping Functional Plants on the Ecosystem Functions and Services in Tea Garden
    SHI Fan, HUANG Hongjing, CHEN Yanting, CHEN Lilin
    Journal of Tea Science    2022, 42 (2): 151-168.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2022.02.011
    Abstract547)      PDF(pc) (1493KB)(432)       Save
    As one of the main measures of habitat management, reasonable intercropping of functional plants in tea garden can shade tea bushes and keep them warm, conserve water and soil, increase fertility and promote growth, as well as maintain micro-habitat stability. It also can attract natural enemies, repel pests, reduce the damage caused by diseases, insects, and weeds in tea garden, therefore it is beneficial for improving the quality and efficiency of the tea. However, unreasonable intercropping will destroy the micro-habitat of tea garden, compete for nutrients, thus affecting the growth of tea plants. In this paper, the intercropping of functional plants and their effects on the ecosystem functions and services in tea garden in recent years were reviewed. These effects mainly included the species, management models, functions and common problems with the most widely used functional plants, as well as the regulatory effects of intercropping of functional plants on the growth and development of tea plants, tea quality and yield, and tea pests. The ultimate goal of this paper was to provide guidance for the application of intercropping measures to promote the comprehensive regulation of pests in tea garden, and enhance the ecosystem functions and services of tea garden.
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    Research on The Status of Chinese Tea Consumption and Factors of Tea Consumer’s Behavior
    GUAN Xi, YANG Jiang-fan, XIE Xiang-ying, LIN Li-qiong
    Journal of Tea Science    2011, 31 (6): 546-551.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2011.06.006
    Abstract602)      PDF(pc) (619KB)(430)       Save
    By using logistic models and data from China Health and Nutrition Survey, the paper analyze the status of tea consumption in China and its influencing factors. The results showed that the consumer's age, gender, urban and rural areas, education, income and region affect the drinking behavior of consumers, the factor of age, education level and income showed significant positive effect on the consumer’s drinking, while male and urban consumers have higher possibility of drinking tea comparing to the female and rural consumer, and consumers in central-eastern region have lower possibility of drinking tea comparing to the western consumers. Based on the conclusion, the corresponding policy recommendations were put forward.
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    Study on the Characteristics of Cream Formation in Green Tea Infusion
    XU Yong-quan, YIN Jun-feng
    Journal of Tea Science    2010, 30 (S1): 527-532.  
    Abstract367)      PDF(pc) (222KB)(427)       Save
    The characteristic of green tea cream formation was studied by comparing the amount of tea cream, the contents and participation ratio of the main chemical components in cold green tea infusion. The results showed that the amount of tea cream from different green tea infusions vary significantly. Protein, caffeine, polyphenols, flavones, ester-catechins (including EGCG, GCG, ECG and CG), Ca2+, Na+ and Ni2+ were found to be prone to participate in green tea cream formation. Stepwise regression analysis shows caffeine and ester-catechins were the principal constitutes of green tea cream, and the amount of tea cream could be forecasted by their contents: Cream (g/L)=-172.071+0.129×Ccaffeine+0.024×Cesters-catechins (R2=0.936). The results of this study will help to reveal the mechanism of green tea cream formation.
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    Cited: Baidu(5)
    Review on Aroma Change during Black Tea Processing
    LIU Fei, WANG Yun, ZHANG Ting, TANG Xiaobo, WANG Xiaoping, LI Chunhua
    Journal of Tea Science    2018, 38 (1): 9-19.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.01.002
    Abstract663)      PDF(pc) (772KB)(426)       Save
    Aroma, as an important character of black tea, influences the intuitive judgment of tea drinkers. Black tea got various scents by the volatile compounds from glycosides hydrolyzation, carotenoids and lipids degradation, Maillard reaction pathway, and caramelization reaction. This paper reviewed the influencing factors involved in aroma formation during black tea processing from fresh tea leaves, withering, rolling, fermentation, to drying. The prospects for future research trends of black tea aroma were also suggested.
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    Productivity and Quality Response of Tea to Balanced Nutrient Management Including K and Mg
    RUAN Jian-yun, WU Xun
    Journal of Tea Science    2003, 23 (s1): 21-26.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2003.s1.005
    Abstract417)      PDF(pc) (294KB)(423)       Save
    This paper summarized results of experiments with potassium and magnesium fertilization on different tea types, carried out in various tea growing areas of China. Analysis of typical soil samples from various tea growing regions indicated that the supplying capacities of K and Mg in more than half samples were classified as deficient and did not meet the demands of tea plant under present production levels. Fertilization with K and Mg greatly increased yields of the major tea types, e.g. green tea, black tea, and Oolong tea. In addition to improved productivity, it is shown that quality, e.g. free amino acids, polyphenols, caffeine as well as theaflavin and thearubigin contents of black tea were largely increased. Resistances to drought and diseases were also improved by K application. Field experiments showed that potassium chloride had similar effect as potassium sulphate. The overall results confirmed that balanced nutrition including the nutrients K and Mg is an important measure to improve productivity of tea. A preliminary recommendation of K and Mg fertilization rates based on soil K and Mg status was proposed.
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    Cited: Baidu(32)
    Progress on Tea Classification and Discussion on Liupu Tea’s Attribution
    WU Ping
    Journal of Tea Science    2014, 34 (4): 408-416.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2014.04.014
    Abstract601)      PDF(pc) (659KB)(421)       Save
    By describing the theory and method of tea classification in China and foreign countries, and the special manufacturing technology and the quality characteristic of dark tea, it was regarded that whatever the semi-finished or the finished tea of Liupu tea, both of them were under the process of pilling up and color changing and according with the theory of tea classification, and the related standard and regulation, so could be called as dark tea, according to the investigation on the method of piling up and color changing in the various manufacturing stages of processing process of Liupu tea, the major factors influencing the piling up and color changing and the sensory quality characteristics of semi-finished tea and finished tea. However, the finished tea have received two times of piling up and color changing processes in comparing with the semi-finished tea.
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    Preliminary Study on Fractions and Correlative Properties of Theabrownin from Pu-erh Tea
    YANG Xin-he, WANG Li-li, HUANG Jian-an, WU Wen-liang, LIU Zhong-hua
    Journal of Tea Science    2011, 31 (3): 187-194.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2011.03.006
    Abstract477)      PDF(pc) (520KB)(419)       Save
    The water extract of pu-erh tea was extracted with chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol in turn. The remaining water pigment-theabrownin obtained was installed in hydroxypropyl glucan gel (sephadex LH-20) column with acetone-aqueous solution for elution and the fractions of theabrownin were collected respectively and their physico-chemical and spectral properties were studied preliminarily. The results indicated that the 40% acetone-aqueous solution was the optimum eluent and flow was 0.05BV/h and classification of theabrownin was best in presenting 6 obvious strips in column, with difference of their chromatism parameter values, total reducing power, pH value, conventional component, UV and IR spectroscopy scanning, and stability etc. The study further demonstrated complexity of compositions and properties of theabrownin. At the same time, this investigation laid a foundation for the further research of bioactivities and chemical essence of theabrownin.
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    Cited: Baidu(5)
    Isolation of CsRAV2 Transcription Factor Gene of Tea Plant and its Expression Analysis
    WU Zhijun, LI Xinghui, FANG Wanping, ZHOU Lin, ZHAO Zhen, ZHUANG Jing
    Journal of Tea Science    2014, 34 (3): 297-306.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2014.03.013
    Abstract330)      PDF(pc) (1481KB)(416)       Save
    The RAV transcription factor, one subfamily of AP2/ERF family transcription factor, includes several genes that encode proteins involved in the development and regulation of abiotic/biotic resistance in higher plant. The CsRAV2 genes, which encoding to the RAV transcription factor, were cloned from tea plant (Camellia sinensis) cultivars ‘Anjibaicha’ and ‘Yingshuang’ by PCR and RT-PCR using DNA and cDNA as template, respectively. Then, nucleic acid and deduced amino acid sequence, phylogenetic tree, and molecular modeling were predicted and analyzed. The lengths of CsRAV2 genes from the two tea plant cultivars were 1 089 bp, encoding 362 amino acids. No intron was found in the CsRAV2 gene. The transcription factor of CsRAV2 contained two distinct DNA domains mainly found in higher plants RAV family factors, one AP2 domain together with one B3 domain. The CsRAV2 were hydrophilic protein. The protein of CsRAV2 from tea plant and AtRAV from Arabidopsis had similar three-dimension structure. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the expression profiles showed that the CsRAV2 gene was tissue-specific expressed in the two tea plant cultivars. The highest expression levels of the CsRAV2 gene were found in the root. The CsRAV2 gene was induced by high temperature, low temperature, PEG and high-salinity treatment, respectively. There were differences profiles between different teacultivars.
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    Effect of Black Tea on Regulating Serum Lipid in Mice Fed with a High-fat Diet
    CHEN Jinhua, TAN Bin, GONG Yushun, HUANG Jian′an, LIU Zhonghua
    Journal of Tea Science    2015, 35 (4): 384-396.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.04.012
    Abstract421)      PDF(pc) (1872KB)(416)       Save
    :The lipid metabolic disturbance model method was used to investigate the regulatory effects of Black Tea (BT) at different dosages (5 times, 10 times and 20 times of adult daily consumption) on serum lipid levels in hyperlipoidemia mice. In present study, blood lipid levels, body weight, and related enzymes of liver and serum were measured, and the histopathological changes in tissues of liver were also examined. It was found that the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), liver malondialdehyde (MDA) and liver index were significantly lower (P<0.01) in BT-treated mice compared with the high hyperlipoidemia model mice, while serum levels of apoA1, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hepatictriglyceridelipase (HL) and total lipase, and liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) actives and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) actives were significantly higher after treatment with BT (P<0.01). Additionally, serum levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was slightly increased. Moreoverr, body weight was reduced, and the liver lesions were attenuated to some degree in BT-treated mice. The results suggested that BT showed a positive effect on regulating the serum lipid and reducing the liver injury induced by high fat diet.
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    Cited: Baidu(3)
    Potential Climate-suitable Distribution of Ectropis Grisescens in China Based on the CLIMEX and ArcGIS Prediction
    CHEN Lilin, ZHOU Hao, ZHAO Jie
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (6): 817-829.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.06.009
    Abstract488)      PDF(pc) (1842KB)(410)       Save
    Based on the data of 820 meteorological stations in China, known geographic distribution data and biological data, the current and potential geographic distribution of a major pest Ectropis grisescens Warren in tea plantations were predicted using CLIMEX models and ArcGIS software. The potential effects of climate change on the future distribution of E. grisescens were also evaluated. The results suggest that the potential geographic distribution area was between 3°51′N and 40°6′N, which accounts for 34.27% of the total area of the country. The climatic conditions of most provinces and regions in China were suitable for the survival of E. grisescens. Due to climate change, the increasing rate of potential suitable area for E. grisescens grew slowly, but its composition changed greatly. By 2050, the predicted proportion of highly suitable area reached a maximum of 22.23%. Compared with A1B, the A2 scenario would accelerate E. grisescens extension in Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia region. As E. grisescens are widely distributed in China, we suggested that monitoring measures should be improved and pest control should be taken as early as possible to ensure the safe production and quality of tea.
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    Comparative Study on the Structure and Hypoglycemic Activity of Several Tea Polysaccharides
    LIU Danqi, REN Fazheng, LI Jingming, HOU Caiyun
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (6): 652-660.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.06.004
    Abstract606)      PDF(pc) (1225KB)(409)       Save
    To study and compare the composition, blood sugar lowering effect and composition of WTP, GTP and BTP. Shoumei, Longjing and Bailingongfu were selected as representatives of white tea, green tea and black tea, and the composition, molecular weight of tea polysaccharides were determined. The mice diabetes model was induced by streptozotocin, metformin was used as a positive control to study the hypoglycemic effect of tea polysaccharides, and qPCR was used to determine the expression level of related genes in mice liver. The results showed that the molecular weights of WTP, GTP and BTP are 18 180 Da, 19 470 Da and 8 745 Da, respectively. The selected tea polysaccharides have hypoglycemic effect, the fasting blood glucose decline rates of WTP, GTP and BTP were 53.2%, 52.8% and 61.6%, respectively. Tea polysaccharides can all improve glucose tolerance, down-regulate the expression of Foxo1, G6Pc, PEPCK and TXNIP genes in mice and there are some differences.
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    Miang (Thai Fermented Tea) and Its Cuisine
    BOUPHUN Tunyaluk, XU Wei, JIANG Yihe, ZHU Qi
    Journal of Tea Science    2017, 37 (6): 645-652.  
    Abstract1529)      PDF(pc) (1011KB)(407)       Save
    Miang is an edible pickled tea or traditional tea leaf fermented product in household by local people in northern Thailand, which is made from the fresh tea leaves. This article went through the history of Miang, discussed its standard and method of plucking, stated the similar teas made in other Asian countries, such as China, Japan, Laos and Myanmar. Miang has long history and is very important for the northern Thai local economy. It also discussed its chemical constituents and the microorganisms responsible for the natural fermentation process as well as its benefits derived by humans. Challenges faced in the conducting its manufacturing industry and promoting it for better development in the future were also introduced.
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    Research Progress in Flavor Chemistry of Chinese Dark Tea
    HE Huafeng, ZHU Hongkai, DONG Chunwang, YE Yang, GUI Anhui, GAO Mingzhu
    Journal of Tea Science    2015, 35 (2): 121-129.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.02.003
    Abstract524)      PDF(pc) (674KB)(406)       Save
    As the unique kind of tea, Chinese dark tea characterize with the tasty and stale aroma which refers to the pile fermentation. This review summarized the recent progress in flavor chemistry research of Chinese dark tea. Analyzed with the chemistry property of the aroma components, derivatives of methoxyl benzene and allylaldehyde were clarified as the characteristic components of the flavor of Chinese dark tea. Subsequently, as well as microorganism, the effect of the processing procedure, such as pile fermentation, drying, storage and et al, on the aroma quality were declared. Also, the affection of the raw material and the extraction method of flavor were indicated. Therefore, separation and characterization of the characteristic flavor compounds, the transformation mechanism of the functional group on the skeleton of aroma molecular and the participation of microorganism in the formation of the flavor of Chinese dark tea will be the research topic in future.
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    Cited: Baidu(7)
    Research Progress on the Volatile Compounds of Premium Roasted Green Tea
    SHI Yali, ZHU Yin, MA Wanjun, YANG Gaozhong, WANG Mengqi, SHI Jiang, PENG Qunhua, LIN Zhi, LYU Haipeng
    Journal of Tea Science    2021, 41 (3): 285-301.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2021.03.001
    Abstract760)      PDF(pc) (622KB)(406)       Save
    Aroma is one of the key indicators to evaluate tea quality, and aroma quality is formed by the complex interactions between different volatile compounds. Premium roasted green teas generally have characteristics of excellent flavor quality, and are the most typical and representative Chinese green tea. In recent years, studies on their volatile compounds had increased gradually and made good progress. However, there were very few systematic explanations on the composition characteristics in aroma compounds of diverse high-quality roasted green teas. Therefore, the present study summarized the research progression in volatile compounds of premium roasted green teas in recent twenty years, enumerated the aroma compounds, illuminated the common compounds, and further discussed the key aroma compounds. These results will provide scientific evidence for the flavor evaluation and aroma quality control for the premium roasted green tea.
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    Rewiew on Taste Characteristic of Catechins and Its Sensory Analysis Method
    ZHANG Yingna, JI Weibin, XU Yongquan, YIN Junfeng
    Journal of Tea Science    2017, 37 (1): 1-9.  
    Abstract456)      PDF(pc) (736KB)(400)       Save
    Taste is the most important quality characteristics of tea infusion. Green tea taste is formed by the interaction of polyphenols, caffeine, amino acids, carbohydrates and metal ions. Polyphenols are the main taste substances of green tea infusion, with catechins as the major components of polyphenols. Catechins are the main contributors of the bitterness and astringency of green tea infusion. Varied intensities of bitterness and astringency of green tea infusions were caused by the different compositions and interactions of catechins. Sensory analysis by human is still the major method for the taste evaluation of tea infusion, which is irreplaceable nowadays. This paper reviewed the taste characteristics of catechins, interactions of taste substances, sensory-analysis method of taste substances, which aimed to improve the theory system of the taste characteristics of catechins and their interactions, and to lay the foundation for the use of sensory-analysis method in relative studies.
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    The Evaluation of the Stability of EGCG-Selenium Nanoparticles and Its Effect on Selenium Absorption and Utilization
    WANG Le, LI Huan, LI Jiahao, CHEN Xuan, LI Xinghui, SUN Kang
    Journal of Tea Science    2017, 37 (4): 373-382.  
    Abstract515)      PDF(pc) (1893KB)(400)    PDF(mobile) (1893KB)(94)    Save
    (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) dispersed Selenium nanoparticles (EGCG-SeNPs) were prepared using vitamin C (Vc) and EGCG as the redox agent and dispersant. Characteristics of EGCG-SeNPs, which were determined using transmission electron microscope (TEM) and zetasizer, were spherical in shape with a mean diameter of (35±0.12)βnm and -0.05βmV zeta potential. The particles were aggregated in strong acid and high temperature conditions (pH1.0 and 70℃), with the particle size increased by about 10 times. And, EGCG in EGCG-SeNPs had good stability as a dispersant. With the administration of 25, 50 and 100βμg·kg-1 (Calculated with selenium content), selenium content in liver and kidney of 50 and 100βμg·kg-1 sodium selenite and EGCG-SeNPs treated mice were significantly increased. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in serum, liver and kidney of all the treatment groups were significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. However, there was no significant difference between sodium selenite and EGCG-SeNPs at the same dose on selenium content and GPx activity. Hence, it can be concluded that EGCG-SeNPs synthesized using Vc as the redox agent might have the similar bioavailability to sodium selenite.
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    The Historic Position of Hunan Tea Culture
    SHI Zhao-peng
    Journal of Tea Science    2005, 25 (1): 1-6.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2005.01.001
    Abstract512)      PDF(pc) (379KB)(398)       Save
    The historic position of Hunan tea culture was discussed from the historic legends, excavated culture relics and historic records. Some records in the “Tea Classic” by Luyu were texturally investigated by the author. The tea cup come from the Yue Zhou stove(one of six china stoves in Tang dynasty)was the texturally investigated and compared with the Changsha china stove of Tang dynasty. These two china stoves of Tang dynasty in Hunan province created ceramic glaze and decoration which had great scientific value in ancient Chinese china field. Besides, the history of Jun-shan and Bai he-lin tea mentioned in the “Tang State history” was discussed by the author also. The relationship of tea and Zen which has long controversy in tea field was discussed in the paper and agrees with the idea that the original place is the Xia Shan temple of Shi Men in Hunan province written by Yuang Wu Ke Qing in Song dynasty. The important historic role of dark tea in Hunan province in the union of all ethic groups and in the tea economy was put forward by the author.
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    Cited: Baidu(5)
    Research Advance in Synthesis and Pharmacological Effects of EGCG Derivatives
    LIU Min, RAO Guowu, HUA Yunfen
    Journal of Tea Science    2016, 36 (2): 119-130.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2016.02.002
    Abstract500)      PDF(pc) (800KB)(396)       Save
    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), one of the important catechins in tea, has efficient bioactivity of cell experiment in vitro and animal models in vivo. However, it was not being fully utilized because of the disadvantages of poor liposolubility and stability, as well as low bioavailability, which was resulted from its ‘polyhydroxy’ chemical structure. Excitingly, the molecular modification would be used to improve the physicochemical character of EGCG. This review will summarize the methods on molecular modification of EGCG and investigation of biological activities, which hopes to provide worthful references to the further study of EGCG.
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    Cited: Baidu(1)
    Journal of Tea Science    1997, 17 (02): 201-206.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.1997.02.009
    Abstract274)      PDF(pc) (156KB)(393)       Save
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    Determination of Glyphosate and Aminomethyl Phosphonic Acid Residue in Green Tea by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
    YANG Yaqin, FENG Shuhui, HU Yongjian, LI Yuanyuan, WANG Huifeng, LIU Jinxi, ZHONG Hongjian
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (1): 125-132.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.20191202.003
    Abstract650)      PDF(pc) (791KB)(390)       Save
    An efficient method for the determination of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) in green tea was developed based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Green tea samples were extracted with water, preliminary purified by dichloromethane and followed by purification with PCX and HLB combined solid phase extraction columns, derived with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) and 2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluoro-1-butanol (HFB), then determined by GC-MS. For glyphosate, the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.05 mg·kg-1, showing good linearity with coefficient R2=0.999 3 in the concentration range from 2-100 ng·mL-1. For AMPA, itsLOQ was 0.02 mg·kg-1, showing good linearity with coefficient R2=0.999 2 in the concentration range from 1-100 ng·mL-1. At the spiked levels of 0.25 mg·kg-1 and 0.50 mg·kg-1, the average recoveries of glyphosate in green tea were 90.8% and 93.2%, with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.93% and 6.74%. At the spiked levels of 0.10 mg·kg-1 and 0.20 mg·kg-1, the average recoveries of AMPA in green tea were 85.8% and 95.4%, with RSD of 10.5% and 5.16%. The proper impurity purification, small impurity interference and high recovery rate made this method suitable for residue detection of glyphosate and its metabolite APMA in green tea.
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    Data Enhancement Optimization and Class Activation Mapping Quantitative Evaluation for CNN Image Recognition of Multiple Tea Categories
    ZHANG Zhanyi, ZHANG Baoquan, WANG Zhouli, YANG Yao, FAN Dongmei, HE Weizhong, MA Junhui, LIN Jie
    Journal of Tea Science    2023, 43 (3): 411-423.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2023.03.006
    Abstract186)      PDF(pc) (1936KB)(390)       Save
    There are many kinds of tea in China, and subjective identification is easy to be confused and very dependent on professional experience. Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) image recognition applied to multi-tea identification has the advantages of objectivity, adaptability to complex image backgrounds and portability to mobile devices. However, the current CNN image recognition of tea lacks data enhancement optimization and objective evaluation of recognition accuracy, which limits the robustness and generalization ability of model recognition. In this study, a total of 6 123 images of 29 common tea categories were collected to construct a dataset, and the ResNet-18 (Residual network-18) training effects of 10 image data enhancement methods were compared. To objectively evaluate the accuracy of the model recognition area, two gradient-weighted class activation mapping (Grad-CAM ) quantitative evaluation indexes (IOB and MPI) were constructed. The results show that grid erasure (Ratio=0.3), resolution perturbation and HSV (Hue, Saturation, Value) color space perturbation are better data enhancement methods, with four indicators of accuracy, loss, IOB and MPI performing better. Furthermore, through the ablation experiment, the optimal combination of data enhancement methods “horizontal mirror flip + grid erasure (Ratio=0.3) + HSV color perturbation” was obtained. The accuracy rate of model test reached 99.82%, with a loss value of only 0.64, and the IOB and MPI indicators also performed better, reflecting good accuracy in image recognition. This study optimized the tea image data enhancement method, and obtained the multi-tea CNN image recognition model with high robustness. The constructed quantization indexes IOB and MPI also solved the problem of accuracy evaluation of CAM recognition region.
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    Cloning and Expression Analysis of Serine Protease EoSP1 in Tea Geometrid (Ectropis obliqua) and Its Response to Starvation
    ZHANG Xin, Chen Chengcong, DU Qin, LI Xiwang, SUN Xiaoling
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (6): 669-680.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.06.006
    Abstract423)      PDF(pc) (719KB)(389)       Save
    Serine protease plays an important role in the digestion process of Lepidoptera insects. In this study, we cloned a serine protease encoding gene EoSP1 from Ectropis obliqua and analyzed its basic characteristics and expression patterns. The coding sequence of EoSP1 is 858 bp, encoding 285 amino acid residues with deduced molecular weight of 29.53 kDa and isoelectric point of 5.44. Compared with other serine proteases, EoSP1 contains conserved serine protease catalytic sites (H95, A161 and S328) and protein interaction domains, and shows the closest relationship with SPs from Mamestra configurata. Further, EoSP1-GST fusion protein similar to the predicted size was purified from E. coli cells. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression level of EoSP1 was much higher in larvae than that in adults, pupae and eggs, and expressed in midgut of larvae specifically. EoSP1 was down-regulated by starvation treatment, and the expression level was change back to that of control group after re-feeding. The above results provide a basis for the function analysis of digestive enzyme and screening of new insect-resistance targets in Ectropis obliqua.
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    Effects of Different Types of Water Quality on the Sensory Properties and Main Chemcial Compositions of Longjing Tea Infusions
    GONG Zhiping, YIN Junfeng, CHEN Gensheng
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (2): 215-224.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.02.008
    Abstract710)      PDF(pc) (508KB)(388)       Save
    In order to understand the effect of water quality on the flavor of tea infusions, six typical drinking water (including tap water, Wahaha Purified water, Hupao cold spring water, C cell vitality small molecule group water, 5100 Tibet glacier mineral water, Jianlong volcano cold mineral water) were selected as the research objects. The effects of different types of water quality on the flavor quality and chemical composition of tea infusions were studied by sensory evaluation and component analysis. The results show that the purified water and Hupao cold spring water were weakly acidic, and had low Ca2+, Mg2+ and total ion contents, which were more suitable to brew Longjing tea. In terms of the quality of flavor, it could better control the bitterness, astringency and freshness of tea soup, and reflect the richness and purity of the unique aroma of the tea infusions. Through the analysis of flavor substances, with the increase of ion concentration of drinking water, the contents of tea polyphenols, amino acids, EGCG, ester catechins and oxalic acid in the tea infusions were significantly reduced. The contents of caffeine and total sugar were not significantly different. The flavonoid content slightly increased. The mineral water with higher concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ effectively inhibited the release of 17 characteristic aroma components of Longjing tea infusions, such as linalool, Trans-butyrate-3-hexene ester, dodecane, tetradecyl, cis-3-Hexenyl isovalerate, geraniol and β-ionone. This study analyzed the effect of water quality on the composition of tea flavor substances and the volatility of aroma substances, and preliminarily determined that the water quality factor was the main reason for the taste difference of Longjing tea infusions. This research preliminarily illuminated the effect of water quality on the flavor composition and aroma volatilization of tea infusions,and the results provided a theoretical basis for tea flavor chemistry, scientific tea making and water selection for tea beverage manufacturing.
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    Effects of Catechins on Acute Hyperuricemia in Mice
    JIN Hongna, SONG Yewei, CUI Weibo, XIE Hong
    Journal of Tea Science    2016, 36 (4): 347-353.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2016.04.002
    Abstract549)      PDF(pc) (776KB)(388)       Save
    The mouse model of acute hyperuricemia was established by using 300 mg·kg-1 oxonic acid potassium salt to evaluate the influence of catechins on serum uric acid. The xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity in serum and liver and the inhibitory effect of catechins on XOD in vitro was further studied. Results showed that with dosage of 600 mg·kg-1, EC, ECG and EGC reduced the serum uric acid level in vivo significantly by 23% (P<0.001), 35% (P<0.001) and 37% (P<0.001), respectively compared with the model group. ECG could reduce XOD activity in serum and liver approximately by 31% (P<0.01) and 32% (P<0.05). In vitro, ECG and EGCG could inhibit XOD activity. Therefore EC, ECG and EGC could reduce the level of uric acid of hyperuricemia mice. The mechanism of uric acid lowering effect of ECG might be associated with its inhibitory effect on XOD.
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    Advance in Research and Application of Sex Pheromone of Tea (Camellia sinensis) Pest
    LUO Zongxiu, CAI Xiaoming, BIAN Lei, LI Zhaoqun, CHEN Zongmao
    Journal of Tea Science    2016, 36 (3): 229-236.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2016.03.001
    Abstract736)      PDF(pc) (738KB)(387)       Save
    Tea is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. However, long-term dependence on chemical pesticide to control diseases and pests caused pesticide residue problem which seriously affects human health. In the meanwhile, pesticide abuse also creates pest resistance and environment pollution. As one of most important discovery in chemical ecology in 1960’s, sex pheromone has attracted scientists for its high efficiency, pro-environment, specificity characteristics. In the past studies, the sex pheromone of several tea pests had been identified and applied, For instance, the application of small tea tortrix sex pheromone has become a paragon. In this paper, we review and discuss the research advance about the identification of tea pest sex pheromone, functions of minor components, chirality, polymorphism, resistance, synthesis pathway, regulatory mechanism and other ecological functions of sex pheromone.
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    Cloning and Expression Analysis of CsPPH Gene in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)
    ZHOU Zhe, CHEN Zhidan, WU Quanjin, XU Yilan, SUN Weijiang
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (1): 39-50.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.20200117.007
    Abstract566)      PDF(pc) (1572KB)(387)       Save
    Pheophytinase (PPH) is a key enzyme in chlorophyll degradation. It can convert pheophytin a into pheophorbide a, which is the last product to keep green in chlorophyll degradation pathway. This step is considered to be a key step of leaf senescence and yellowing. In this study, the full-length sequence of CsPPH gene was cloned from the new shoot leaves of albino tea plant Camellia sinensis cv. Baijiguan (MK359094), and its biological characteristics were analyzed. The full-length of CsPPH was 1 298 bp, and the ORF was 1 241 bp, encoding 413 amino acids. Sequence analysis indicated that the encoded protein was a stable hydrophobic protein, and its molecular weight was predicted to be 45 741.50 Da. Its theoretical isoelectric point was 6.12. It was mainly located in chloroplasts. The real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR showed that under shading conditions, the expression of CsPPH was inhibited, chlorophyll increased and leaf color turned green. Light promoted the expression of CsPPH in leaves of cv. Baijiguan, and chlorophyll degradation led to leaf albinism.
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    Cloning and Response Analysis of the CsMDHAR Gene Under the Abiotic Stress in Camellia sinensis
    LIN Shijia, LI Hui, LIU Hao, TENG Ruimin, LIU Jingyu, WANG Shuang, ZHUANG Jing
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (5): 495-505.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.05.001
    Abstract570)      PDF(pc) (1290KB)(386)       Save
    In this study, a MDHAR gene (CsMDHAR) was cloned from Camellia sinensis cv. ‘Longjing 43’ based on the transcriptome data of tea plant. Sequence analysis shows that the open reading frame length of CsMDHAR was 1β305βbp, encoding 434 amino acids with a molecular weight of approximately 47.21βkDa and the theoretical isoelectric point of 5.99. CsMDHAR was a hydrophilic protein, including two unordered regions and 32 phosphorylation sites. CsMDHAR belonged to Pyr-redox-2 super-family containing a highly conserved region called FAD domain, and mainly composed of α-helix and random coil. PlantCARE and PLACE database prediction analysis suggest that there were many cis-elements related to light, hormones and stress resistance in the 1β000βbp upstream region of CsMDHAR gene. The expression profiles of CsMDHAR, CsAO and CsAPX in tea cv ‘Longjing 43’ and ‘Yingshuang’ under high temperature, low temperature, drought, and salt treatments were detected by qRT-PCR. The results indicate that the expression profiles of CsMDHAR, CsAO and CsAPX were suppressed under 4℃, and there were no significantly differences in ‘Longjing 43’ and ‘Yingshuang’. However, the expression profiles of CsMDHAR gene were upregulated under 38℃ or 200βg·L-1 PEG treatments in ‘Longjing 43’, with the highest 2.5 and 5 times of the control at 8βh and 2βh, respectively. In addition, the expression trends of CsAO and CsAPX in both cultivars were similar under NaCl (200βmmol·L-1) treatment, but the variation ranges were different, which might be related to the different stress response in tea plant.
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    Full-length Transcriptome Analysis of Protected Cultivation ‘Yuncha 1’ (Camellia sinensis Var assamica)
    ZHU Xingzheng, XIA Lifei, CHEN Linbo, SUN Yunnan, TIAN Yiping, SONG Weixi, JIANG Huibin
    Journal of Tea Science    2018, 38 (2): 193-201.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.02.010
    Abstract591)      PDF(pc) (860KB)(386)       Save
    To explore the genetic basis for important traits, the full-length transcriptome of the ‘Yuncha 1’ (Camellia assamica) was sequenced by using PacBio Platform. A total of 213β389 polished consensus were generated, 223β120 coding sequences were predicted and annotated, and 195β062 SSR loci were found. According to NR databases, 170β264 homologous sequences were mapped to 980 species, 103β124 unigenes were further annotated and grouped into 26 functional categories in KOG databases, 65β524 unigenes were annotated against GO database and divided into cellular component, molecular function and biological process categories with a total of 55 functional groups. KEGG pathway analysis showed that 105β972 unigenes could be broadly classified into 216 metabolism pathways according to their function, and some of them were involved in quality, bioactive substances, and resistance gene, etc. It is also predicted that there were 5β785 transcription factors belonging to 60 transcription factor families. The experimental results will give important data for development of SSRs of specific traits, genetic analysis and studies involved in quality formation and resistence mechanism in tea cultivar ‘Yuncha 1’.
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    Study on the Characteristic Aroma Components of Jasmine Tea
    AN Huimin, OU Xingchang, XIONG Yifan, ZHANG Yangbo, LI Juan, LI Qin, LI Qian, LI Shi, HUANG Jian'an
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (2): 225-237.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.02.009
    Abstract994)      PDF(pc) (521KB)(384)       Save
    Jasmine tea is unique to China reprocessing tea. The aroma is the most important factor for its quality. In this study, a Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gaschromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of volatile components in green tea and jasmine tea. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (Orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis, OPLS-DA) and aroma activity value method (Odor activity value, OAV) were used to identify characteristic aroma of jasmine tea ingredients, and explore their effects on tea quality. The results show that: 70 kinds of volatile components were identified in green tea and jasmine tea. Totally 13 characteristic aroma components were identified in jasmine tea, namely 3-hexene-1-ol, benzyl alcohol, linalool, phenylethyl alcohol, leaf alcohol esters of acetic acid, methyl benzoate, benzyl acetate, methyl salicylate, cis-3-hexenyl isovalerate, methyl 2-aminobenzoate, cis-3-hexenyl benzene formate, indole and α-farnesene. These characteristic aroma components were closely correlated with the jasmine tea quality, except phenylethanol. The results of this study provided a theoretical basis for the evaluation, regulation and promotion of Jasmine tea quality.
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    Effect of Biochar Addition on Ammonia Volatilization in Acid Tea Garden
    WANG Feng, CHEN Yuzhen, WU Zhidan, JIANG Fuying, ZHANG Wenjin, WENG Boqi, YOU Zhiming
    Journal of Tea Science    2017, 37 (1): 60-70.  
    Abstract320)      PDF(pc) (875KB)(383)       Save
    Ammonia (NH3) volatilization is a major reason for nitrogen loss in tea garden soils. Field experiment was carried out to study the effects of biochar on soil physiochemical properties and ammonia volatilization in acid tea gardens, which would provide scientific support for the appropriate application of biochar. Four treatments were included in the experiment, namely no N fertilizer (CK), N fertilizer (B0N1, 225βkg·hm-2), N fertilizer with 8 t·hm-2 biochar (B1N1) and N fertilizer with 16 t·hm-2 biochar (B2N1). The nitrogen was applied three times, namely top dressing in spring, top dressing in autumn and basal dressing in winter in the ratio of 3︰3︰4. Compared with the B0N1 (N-applying only), biochar treatments (B1N1 and B2N1) significantly increased soil pH and organic carbon content (P<0.05), while decreased soil bulk density (P<0.05). Moreover, the average soil NH4+-N and NO3--N concentrations in biochar treated soils were 5.34%-12.59% lower and 11.02%-36.54% higher than B0N1, indicating the nitrification was promoted. The total NH3-N volatilization losses in acid tea garden varied from 13.01βkg·hm-2 to 40.95βkg·hm-2 and the percentages of the losses relative to total amount of N-application ranged from 7.29 to 12.42%. NH3-N volatilization losses also varied significantly among applying stages, with the highest NH3-N volatilization loss in winter basal dressing. The NH3-N volatilization increased significantly with N application (P<0.05), but NH3-N volatilization in B1N1 and B2N1 were significantly decreased by 26.25% and 28.21% (P<0.05), respectively. In summary, the soil NH4+-N concentrations had a direct correlation with NH3 emission and the reduction of NH3-N volatilization in biochar treatments might be attributed to the decrease of NH4--N concentrations in soils.
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    Journal of Tea Science    2002, 22 (01): 1-6.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2002.01.001
    Abstract260)      PDF(pc) (57KB)(383)       Save
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    Journal of Tea Science    1993, 13 (01): 51-59.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.1993.01.009
    Abstract542)      PDF(pc) (2644KB)(383)       Save
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    Dynamic Change of Main Biochemical Components of Premium Green Tea Fresh Leaves during Spreading
    YIN Jun-feng, XU Yong-quan, YUAN Hai-bo, YU Shu-ping, WEI Kun-kun, CHEN Jian-xin, WANG Fang, WU Rong-mei
    Journal of Tea Science    2009, 29 (2): 102-110.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2009.2.004
    Abstract482)      PDF(pc) (289KB)(382)       Save
    By using of a leaf and a bud shoot as fresh tea leaves material, and spread continuously (78%~61%), spread leaves with different moisture content were fixed with liquid nitrogen and freeze-dried. then the contents of tea polyphenols and catechin components, total amino acids and free components, caffeine, total chlorophyll, Vc and total soluble sugar were determined to study the dynamic change of biochemical components of fresh tea leaves during spreading. Results showed that with increasing of spreading time, moisture content of fresh tea leaves decreased rapidly gradually, weight of dry substance decreased; contents of tea polyphenols and total catechins decreased at first and then increased during spreading, total esters-catechins decreased gradually, but GC could not be detected in fresh tea leaves and spread tea leaves, content of total amino acids increased, but different free amino acid have different changing trends during spreading; content of caffeine and total soluble sugar increased while total chlorophyll and Vc decreased gradually. Different biochemical components of fresh tea leaves changes in different rules during spreading. This study provides supplied some theory for improving the quality of premium green tea.
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    Cited: Baidu(48)
    Study on the Gallic Acid in Pu-erh Tea
    LU Hai-peng, LIN Zhi, GU Ji-ping, GUO Li, TAN Jun-feng
    Journal of Tea Science    2007, 27 (2): 104-110.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2007.02.002
    Abstract614)      PDF(pc) (484KB)(381)       Save
    Gallic acid is a characteristic phenolic compound in Pu-erh tea with notable bioactivity. The content of gallic acid in Pu-erh tea, the change of gallic acid during the pile-fermentation, and the relation between extract fraction bioactivity and its gallic acid content were studied. Results showed that the average content of gallic acid in Pu-erh tea was 9.01βmg/g, but striking dissimilarity existed between the different samples; The gallic acid content first increased to some extent then decreased during the pile-fermentation of the solar green tea of [Camellia sinensis (Linn.) var. assamica (Masters) Kitamura]. It was found that the extracted fractions which rich in gallic acid showed higher antioxidative activities by DPPH radical scavenging assay.
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    Cited: Baidu(29)
    Application of Retention Index on Volatile Compound Identification of Tea and Development of Retention Index Database
    LIN Jie, CHEN Ying, SHI Yuanxu, WANG Xiaochang
    Journal of Tea Science    2014, 34 (3): 261-270.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2014.03.008
    Abstract448)      PDF(pc) (835KB)(380)       Save
    Standard mixture of n-alkanes and n-alkanes in samples were applied respectively to determine the retention index (RI) of tea volatiles. The linear correlation coefficients of retention time with carbon number for the two methods were both above 0.99, indicating quite good reliability for calculating RI. With the applying of RI, the correct identification rate of the volatiles increased from 46.67% to 74.67%. Meanwhile, RI enabled effective identification of the isomers contained in tea volatiles, and greatly increased the identification accuracy. Data in relevant literatures were summarized to construct a RI database for HP-innowax column. The RI database could also improve the efficiency of compound identification using HP-innowax column.
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    Camellia Ptilophylla and Specific Chemical Components, Theirs Health Beneficial Effects
    WU Wenliang, TONG Tong, HU Yao, ZHOU Hao, YIN Xia, ZHANG Shuguang
    Journal of Tea Science    2021, 41 (5): 593-607.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.20210917.002
    Abstract848)      PDF(pc) (1145KB)(379)       Save
    Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla Chang) is a specific tea resource in China, and theobromine (TB) and gallocatechin gallate (GCG), as the dominant chemical components of cocoa tea, have various health effects. This paper summarized intervention effects and mechanisms of cocoa tea, TB and GCG on cardiovascular diseases, cancers, obesity, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, dental diseases, respiratory diseases and kidney diseases, etc. This review would provide a theoretical reference for the development of functional cocoa tea products.
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    Screening of the Beauveria bassiana Strain with High Virulence to Basilepta melanopus (Coleoptera: Chrysomeloidea)
    WANG Dingfeng, LI Liangde, LI Jianlong, LI Huiling, ZHANG Hui, WANG Qingsen, WU Guangyuan
    Journal of Tea Science    2017, 37 (3): 229-236.  
    Abstract344)      PDF(pc) (280KB)(378)       Save
    The beetle (Basilepta melanopus) is one of the most serious leaf-feeding insects in tea garden, which seriously affects both tea yield and quality. In recent years, the beetle often caused serious damage in some tea gardens, especially organic tea gardens. How to effectively control this pest has become a serious problem. In order to screen high virulence strains of Beauveria bassiana to B. melanopus, 9 strains of B. bassiana isolated from the coleoptera pests in tea gardens were selected as candidates. In the preliminary screening, the biological characteristics of these 9 strains, including colony morphology, growth rate, sporulation, spore germination rate, thermotolerance and UV radiation resistance were detected. According to the above biological characteristics, three strains Bb338, Bb346 and Bb2-1 were selected for further bioassay against the adult of B. melanopus. Bioassay results showed that the strain Bb2-1 was the most virulent strain to the adults of B. melanopus, which had the highest corrected mortality rates of 100%, highest cadaver rates of 86.11% and shortest LT50 of 3.32 d at a concentration of 1.0×107 conidia per milliliter. The strain Bb2-1 has the best biological characteristics and the highest virulent against the adults of B. melanopus, which would play a very important role in biocontrol of B. melanopus.
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    Journal of Tea Science    2002, 22 (01): 51-56.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2002.01.011
    Abstract327)      PDF(pc) (42KB)(377)       Save
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    Effect of Withering Temperature on Dynamic Changes of Main Biochemical Components and Enzymatic Activity of Tea Fresh Leaves
    HUA Jinjie, YUAN Haibo, WANG Weiwei, JIANG Yongwen, LIU Qianlu, CHEN Gensheng, WANG Fang
    Journal of Tea Science    2015, 35 (1): 73-81.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.01.014
    Abstract374)      PDF(pc) (615KB)(377)       Save
    By using of two leaves and a bud shoot as fresh tea leave material, setting three different withering temperature (20, 28, 36℃), sampled leaves with different moisture content, then the contents of tea polyphenols, total amino acids, flavonoids, total soluble protein, soluble sugar, PPO activity, and POD activity were determined to study the effect of withering temperature on dynamic changes of main biochemical components and enzymatic activity of tea fresh leaves, and the effects of different withering temperature on main biochemical components of rolled leaves, fermented leaves and fired tea were also analysed. The results show that with the increasing of withering time, moisture content of tea fresh leaves decrease gradually, the contents of tea polyphenols, total soluble protein and soluble sugar decrease gradually accordingly, and the contents of tea polyphenols were no difference between 28℃ and 36℃, but are obviously higher than that in 20℃; the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar are negatively correlated with temperature; the contents of total amino acids and flavonoids increase gradually, and are positively correlated with temperature; the released amount of CO2 decreased at first, then increase and decrease finally, and the amount is the largest when the withering light temperature is 36℃; polyphenol oxidase activity shows a slow downward trend, peroxidase activity shows an upward trend, and they are the highest at 28℃. The contents of theaflavins, thearubigins, and polyphenols are also the highest at 28℃; the results of sensory evaluation also shows that the liquor color and taste of black tea at 28℃ had the highest score, with the best quality.
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    Research Progress and Discussion on Fungal Contamination of Dark Tea
    JIANG Yihe, XU Wei, ZHU Qi
    Journal of Tea Science    2018, 38 (3): 227-236.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.03.002
    Abstract479)      PDF(pc) (1086KB)(374)       Save
    Microbial extracellular enzyme catalytic activity is the key factor of dark tea quality formation, and the later storage causes changes in the microbiological system in dark tea. To explore the potential food safety risks of fungus system in dark tea products, the research results of dark tea fungi pollution were reviewed. It showed that a variety of contaminating fungal toxins could be detected in dark tea samples, such as aflatoxins, ochratoxins, deoxynivalenol. Studies showed that toxin exposure of dark tea samples were low, and multi-active components of dark tea could down-regulate part of genes associating with aflatoxins, thus inhibited aflatoxin production in dark tea matrix samples. It was pointed out that it is safe to produce and drink dark tea regularly, and the development direction of dark tea processing is the application of directional fermentation technologies.
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    Journal of Tea Science    1997, 17 (02): 171-176.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.1997.02.002
    Abstract364)      PDF(pc) (100KB)(372)       Save
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    Genetic Diversity of Mature Leaves of Tea Germplasms Based on Image Features
    CHEN Qiyu, MA Jianqiang, CHEN Jiedan, CHEN Liang
    Journal of Tea Science    2022, 42 (5): 649-660.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2022.05.002
    Abstract306)      PDF(pc) (737KB)(372)       Save
    The genetic diversity of tea germplasm in China is an important basis for its effective utilization. In this study, the genetic diversity of tea germplasm in China was elucidated by statistical analysis, principal component analysis, correlation analysis and cluster analysis of 18 image features of mature leaves from 504 tea germplasm accessions preserved in China National Germplasm Hangzhou Tea Repository. The results show that the coefficient of variation and genetic diversity index of this population were 15.97% and 1.98, respectively. Among different provinces, the average coefficient of variation was the largest in Fujian province, which was 16.29%. The data of Jiangsu province was on the bottom, accounting for 10.58%. Zhejiang province had the highest average genetic diversity index at 2.01. The average genetic diversity index of Chongqing municipality reached the lowest point, occupying 1.67. The dimension of 18 image features were streamlined by principal component analysis and characterized into 4 principal components, with a cumulative contribution rate of 82.63%, and 12 image features were screened out from 18 image features with significant differences. According to the image features, the tea germplasms were clustered into 6 groups. The results provided a theoretical basis and reference for further exploration and utilization of tea germplasm in China.
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    The Inhibitory Role and Mechanism of White Tea Extracts on Pulmonary Fibrosis Induced by Nano-sized SiO2 in Rats
    PARK Soomi, KIM Eunhye, CHEN Xinghua, WANG Qianchao, HE Puming, TU Youying
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (2): 157-164.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.02.002
    Abstract528)      PDF(pc) (5033KB)(371)       Save
    Fifty-four Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: control group, model group, white silver needle extract group, high and low dose white peony extracts and EGCG group, with 9 rats in each group. The other five groups except the control group were treated with nano-sized SiO2 dust (80 mg·mL-1) by non-exposed endotracheal intubation. After two weeks of intragastric administration, the contents of hydroxyproline(HYP), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the morphological changes of lung tissues were detected. The results show that compared with the model group, the pathological changes of each white tea extract treatment group and EGCG group were alleviated in varying degrees, and the effect of white silver needle extract group was the best. The content of NO and inflammatory factor IL-6 in lung of rats treated with white tea extract and EGCG were significantly lower than those of model group (P<0.05), GSH-Px activity was higher than that of model group (P<0.05). High-dose white peony extract group had the best effect on reducing NO content and increasing GSH-Px activity. This study shows that white tea extract had a significant effect on oxidative stress injury of lung fibrosis induced by nano-sized SiO2 in rats. The slow and repairing effects are mainly related to the antioxidant effect and the inhibition of inflammatory reaction.
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    Econometric Analyses of EGCG Research Literature
    ZHANG Yini, JI Zheng
    Journal of Tea Science    2022, 42 (3): 423-434.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.20220416.002
    Abstract268)      PDF(pc) (1222KB)(371)       Save
    The epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has shown the highest biological activity in tea components in most studies, which has shown beneficial effects on anti-cancer, bacterial and viral infections. A review of the advances and hot spots of EGCG studies were summarized through citation analysis. In order to ensure that the review is objective and scientific, literature analysis was performed from the core collection of the data base of ISI Web of Science of the period of 2000-2021 with the key words “EGCG” and “Epigallocatechin gallate”. A total of 6 799 relevant papers were obtained. Then, the CiteSpace visualization software was used for citation analysis and the research hotspots and frontier trends were studied through network analysis including cooperation, co-occurrence and co-citation. Statistical analysis of volume of the publications shows that China, United States and Japan ranked the top three in this field. Analysis of betweenness central indicators shows that United States, Germany and China were the top three in terms of importance. Further citation analysis shows that “nanoparticle”, and “stability” were the hotspots in the recent years. With the deepening of the research on EGCG, it was speculated that the future research would focus on improving the bioavailability of EGCG and exploring the optimal dose level and administration frequency.
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    Journal of Tea Science    1997, 17 (02): 231-234.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.1997.02.014
    Abstract267)      PDF(pc) (61KB)(371)       Save
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    Research Progress of Tea Beer
    CHEN Dequan, ZHU Yan, ZOU Chun, YIN Junfeng, CHEN Jianxin, XU Yongquan
    Journal of Tea Science    2022, 42 (2): 169-178.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2022.02.005
    Abstract638)      PDF(pc) (708KB)(369)       Save
    Tea beer is a new type of beer, obtained by adding tea or tea extract in the brewing process with the dual flavor characteristics of tea and beer. The development of tea beer would not only enrich the types, flavors, and physiological effects of beer, but also improve the utilization rate and additional value of tea resources and benefit for the common development of tea and beer industries. However, the studies of tea beer on pretreatment of raw materials, fermentation and clarification technologies were still not mature. Therefore, this paper systemically summarized the processing technologies of tea beer, including the pretreatment of raw materials, fermentation and clarification technologies. Based on that, we made the prospects for the future of tea beer, aiming to provide a reference for the research and development of tea beer in depth.
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    Research Progress on Colored Substances in Tea
    LONG Piaopiao, SU Shengxiao, ZHANG Liang
    Journal of Tea Science    2023, 43 (5): 593-606.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2023.05.010
    Abstract368)      PDF(pc) (733KB)(369)       Save
    The color of tea leaves and infusions is an important attribute to tea flavor and quality. Colored substances contain chromophore and auxochrome groups, which contribute to producing different shades of green, yellow, and red hue in tea infusion. As the concentrations of colored substances increase, the tea infusions’ color will increase accordingly, presenting different colors such as yellowish-green, reddish-yellow and reddish-brown. Furthermore, fermentation (enzymatic oxidation) and drying stages during processing, as well as temperature, pH, and concentration in sensory evaluation, affect the color and brightness of tea infusions. This review revealed the color formation mechanisms by summarizing the chemical structures, color characteristics, coloration mechanisms and other factors of color substances in tea. It also provided a theoretical evidence for the quality improvement of tea flavor and the innovation of processing technology.
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    Study on the Changes of Primary Metabolites During the Manufacturing Process of Roasted Green Tea by Pre-column Derivatization Combining with GC-MS
    CHEN Mei, DAI Weidong, LI Pengliang, ZHU Yin, CHEN Qincao, YANG Yanqin, TAN Junfeng, LIN Zhi
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (3): 297-308.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.03.007
    Abstract682)      PDF(pc) (462KB)(368)    PDF(mobile) (462KB)(14)    Save
    Few if any previous studies were carried out in the field of primary metabolite changes during the manufacturing process of roasted green tea. Longjing 43 was used to make roasted green tea and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with derivatization was used to determine the components. A total of 60 compounds were identified, which included high levels of organic acids, carbohydrates and carbohydrate derivatives. Each steps of the processing could be successfully distinguished by partial least-squares discriminant analysis based on 26 key compounds. The results of cluster analysis indicated that the content changes of the 26 compounds could be classified into three categories: high-low: 2-ketoglutaric acid, arabinose, gallic acid, glucopyranosiduronic acid, glyceryl-glucoside, ribose, galactose, fructose, glucose, phosphoric acid, 4-ketoglucose, ribono-1,4-lactone, and mannitol. High-low-high: homogentisic acid, sucrose, galactinol, threonic acid, turanose, ribonic acid, inositol and citric acid. Low-high-low: erythrose-1,4-lactone, oxypropyl phosphate, pyroglutamic acid, quinic acid and hexanedioic acid. Organic acids mainly showed a rising and then downward trend. Carbohydrates except sucrose showed a downward trend.
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    Effects of Different Potassium Level on Leaf Photosynthesis of Tea Seedling
    LIN Zheng-he, ZHONG Qiu-sheng, CHEN Chang-song, CHEN Zhi-hui, YOU Xiao-mei
    Journal of Tea Science    2013, 33 (3): 261-267.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2013.03.013
    Abstract415)      PDF(pc) (617KB)(367)       Save
    Vegetative propagated 10-month-old tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze cv. Ruixiang] seedlings grown in pots were fertilized three times weekly for 24 weeks with nutrient solution containing 0, 100, 200, 600 or 2β000βμmol/L potassium. The portable photosynthesis system (LI-6400) was used to determine leaf photosynthesis of tea. The result showed that K-deficient leaves showed decreased CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance, water use efficiency but increased intercellular CO2 concentration. Result also showed that biomass, content of K and chlorophyll were decreased in K-deficient leaves. The tea seeding appeared potassium deficiency symptoms when fertilized with nutrient solution containing 0, 100βμmol/L potassium(K content of leave 6.63βmg/g, 6.85βmg/g).
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    Cited: Baidu(7)
    Effect of High Concentrations of Cd Stress on the Physiological Characteristics, Absorbtion and Accumulation in Tea Plant
    WANG Chun-mei, TANG Qian, ZHANG Xiao-qin, ZHANG Dong-chuan
    Journal of Tea Science    2012, 32 (2): 107-114.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2012.02.010
    Abstract337)      PDF(pc) (671KB)(365)       Save
    :Through the soil pot experiment, investigation on the influence of high concentrations of cadmium stress on the growth, absorbtion and accumulation physical characteristics of tea plant by using Mingshanbaihao cultivar as testing material. The results showed that: Tea plants did not show obvious symptoms under the cadmium concentration of 0~120 mg/kg. The growth of various organs, chlorophyll synthesis and photosynthesis were significantly inhibited by increasing concentrations of Cd. Superoxide dismutase(SOD), peroxidase(POD), catalase(CAT) activity were gradually reduced accordingly. The content of malondialdehyde(MDA), proline(Pro) and relative conductivity(RC) increased substantially. Cadmium in various organs(y) had a significant or highly significant positive correlation with Cd concentration(x1) and available cadmium content in soil(x2). The order of cadmium contents in various organs was Fibrous roots> Roots> Stems> Branches> Leaves> New sterns>. The migration of available cadmium in soil from the underground parts to aboveground parts was the main source of cadmium in tea plants. Cadmium in tea plants mostly fixed by fibrous roots and roots, simultaneously, only a low ratio was transported to aboveground.
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    Cited: Baidu(5)
    Identification of Meitan Cuiya Tea Grades Based on Visible-Near-Infrared Technology
    PENG Qingwei, LIU Yun, YU Jiancheng, WEI Xiaonan, TANG Yanlin
    Journal of Tea Science    2017, 37 (5): 458-464.  
    Abstract411)      PDF(pc) (876KB)(364)       Save
    In order to distinguish tea grade by using visible-near-infrared spectroscopy technique, Meitan Cuiya tea was used as materials in this study. The spectral data of all different grades Cuiya samples were collected. Firstly, Savitzky-Golay smoothing(SG), multiple scattering correction(MSC), standard normal variable transformation (SNV), first derivative, second derivative, detrending and other pretreatment methods were used to process the original spectral data of the samples. Then, the partial least squares regression (PLSR) model was established based on different preprocessing methods and raw data. The influence of different pretreatment methods on the modeling model was also studied. The results showed that the modeling of SG smoothing pretreatment method had the best effect. In order to simplify the model, three characteristic wavelength selection methods, the stepwise regression analysis (SWR), successive projection algorithm (SPA), and competitive adaptive re-weighting (CARS) were used to select the characteristic wavelength, which would be the pretreatment before the SG smoothing. Finally, PLSR modeling was performed based on the characteristic wavelengths selected by different feature wavelength algorithms. The results showed that the model based on the CARS method had the best prediction effect, with the correlation coefficient of 0.9739 and the calibration standard deviation of 0.2250. The model greatly reduced the number of independent variables, simplified the previous model, and achieved a good prediction effect, which provided a new, quick and effective method for the classification of Cuiya grades.
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    Journal of Tea Science    2002, 22 (01): 61-.  
    Abstract228)      PDF(pc) (15KB)(363)       Save
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    Molecular Cloning, Subcellular Localization and Expression Analysis of CsPT4 Gene in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)
    XIN Huahong, WANG Weidong, WANG Mingle, MA Qingping, GAN Yudi, LI Xinghui
    Journal of Tea Science    2017, 37 (5): 493-502.  
    Abstract460)      PDF(pc) (1542KB)(361)       Save
    Phosphate transporter proteins (Phts) play important roles in plant phosphorus (P) absorption and transportation. Furthermore, Phts affect usage efficiency of the tea garden fertilizer. A full-length phosphate transporter complementary DNA (cDNA) CsPht1:4 (also named CsPT4) was cloned from tea plant (Camellia sinensis cv. Longjingchangye) by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques. CsPT4 had an open reading frame of 1β620βbp (GenBank accession No. KY132100) and encoded a 539 amino acid polypeptide. Bioinformatic analyses showed that CsPT4 had a molecular weight of 59.12βkD and a theoretical isoelectric point of 8.51. The protein secondary structure was a “6+Hydrophilic+6” configuration,which was consistent with the typical structure of Phts. Subcellular localization assay showed that the CsPT4 protein localized in plasma membrane, which was consistent with the predicted results of Softberry. The expression pattern of CsPT4 gene was tissue-specific. Its transcript abundance in old leaves was much higher than that in tender leaves, stems and roots. The lowest expression of CsPT4 gene was identified in roots. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the gene expression trends in root and leaves were different under low-P and P-deficiency treatments. Under low-P treatment, its induced level was first increased and then decreased, with higher expression in roots than leaves. While under P-deficiency treatment, the induced expression of CsPT4 gene kept stable, with its peak in roots and leaves at 72 h and 48 h, respectively. The results of this study provided a reference for the study of the molecular mechanism of tea adaptation to low P.
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    A New Disease of Tea Plant Caused by Phoma adianticola
    YANG Wen, CHEN Yao, CHEN Xiaojun, YAO Yongjing, ZHOU Yufeng
    Journal of Tea Science    2016, 36 (1): 59-67.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2016.01.008
    Abstract412)      PDF(pc) (1328KB)(358)       Save
    This paper aims to study the pathogen isolation and identification of a kind of disease causing browning on tea buds. The pathogenic strain was obtained according to Koch's Rule. The results of morphological observation of strains and the rDNA ITS molecular identification under the condition of PDA culture showed that the pathogen was a fungus of phoma. The pathogenic strain was further identified in according to the identification procedures of phoma. After 7 days on the OA and MA culture medium, the average diameter of colonies was 6.0-6.4 cm. Pycnidia were globose with 1-2 ostioles, glabrous or with some hyphal outgrowths. Conidia were ellipsoidal, aseptate, usually with two polar guttules, mostly (4.9-6.3) μm× (2.1-2.8) μm in size. The NaOH reaction was positive on OA and MA, the colour became yellow-green. The characteristics described above showed that the pathogen was preliminarily identified as Phoma adianticola. This disease of tea buds caused by P. adianticola may be a new disease of tea plant. According to the symptoms of infection, this disease was temporarily described as the buds-browning disease of tea.
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    Volatile Components from Cymbopogon citratus and the Activity Research on Their Main Elements Against Three Fungal Pathogens of Tea
    YANG Wen, LIU Huifang, CHEN Yao, SU Sheng, LI Tianxing, LIU Yaoguo, ZHOU Yufeng
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (2): 269-278.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.02.013
    Abstract644)      PDF(pc) (421KB)(357)       Save
    The volatile components from Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf were extracted by solid phase microextraction and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Fifty one volatile components from stems and leaves were identified. Citral [Contains two compounds (E)-citral and (Z)-citral] and geraniol were found to be the major components. Their relative contents in stems were 81.39% (58.48% and 22.91%) and 4.79%, respectively. Meanwhile, the contents in leaves were 78.50% (51.63% and 26.87%) and 3.68%, respectively. The activities of citral and geraniol to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Pestalotiopsis theae and Phoma adianticola were determined using mycelium growth rate method. The preliminarily test results show that the inhibition rate of the two compounds against P. theae were lower than 56% under the tested concentration of 500 mg·L-1 for 96 h. By contrast, they exerted high activities against C. gloeosporioides and P.adianticola with a inhibition rate of 100%. Further evaluated results show that the EC50 of citral to C. gloeosporioides and P.adianticola were (230.56±3.49) mg·L-1 and (124.79±10.29) mg·L-1, respectively. The EC50 of geraniol to the two fungi were (238.38±5.51) mg·L-1 and (115.38±10.96) mg·L-1, respectively. The present study preliminarily revealed the volatile components of C. citratus and the main active fractions against two pathogenic Fungi on tea. The results could provide a theoretical basis for the potential disease prevention of the interplanting of C. citratus and tea.
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    Advances in Tea Plant Genetics and Breeding
    LIANG Yuerong, SHI Meng
    Journal of Tea Science    2015, 35 (2): 103-109.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.02.001
    Abstract513)      PDF(pc) (567KB)(356)       Save
    Advances in germplasm enhancement of tea breeding, techniques for identification of new tea cultivars, changes in breeding objectives, improvement of breeding program, achievements of tea breeding, system of propagation and extension of new tea cultivars were reviewed in this paper, which provides useful information for further studies in tea genetics and breeding. Hybridization is still the major method for innovating tea breeding materials, and the physical and chemical mutagenesis methods have been extensively used, while transgenic technique remains to be further improved. Combination of the high resolution inspecting equipments and the gene identification technology with the forecasting models established by computer technology made the early identification of tea cultivars more accurate. The breeding target has been diversified after going through yield breeding, quality breeding and early flushing breeding stages. Improving early identification accuracy and shortening breeding cycle will be the aim for tea breeding technology development.
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    Cited: Baidu(9)
    tudy of Pu′er Raw Materials Grade Classification by PCA and PLS-DA
    LIU Binqiu, CHEN Xiaoquan, WU Xiaogang, ZHANG Wei, WANG Zihao
    Journal of Tea Science    2015, 35 (2): 179-184.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.02.011
    Abstract930)      PDF(pc) (910KB)(356)       Save
    Two classification methods for Pu′er raw materials were explored using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and the important physical and chemical compositions were identified through the statistical analysis. The results revealed that both PCA and PLS-DA could directly classify the grades of Pu′er raw materials, particularly for the grade 3, but not for that of grade 6 and 9. The PCA loadings plot and PLS-DA variable important for the projection plot indicated that the contents of amino acids were the important physical and chemical components for classification. Lysine (Lys), proline (Pro) and phenylalanine (Phe) were three most important physical and chemical compositions.
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    Study on Physicochemical Characteristics of Matcha Powder with Different Particle Sizes
    ZHANG Hui, WANG Huifang, LIU Yanyan, FAN Zhengrong, ZHANG Zhengzhu, LIU Zhengquan
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (4): 464-473.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.04.012
    Abstract741)      PDF(pc) (870KB)(356)       Save
    Taking the physicochemical characteristics as indicators, the tea was superfine grinding by a production type ball mill to obtain Matcha with medium particle size of 117.094, 60.176, 40.041, 30.646, 25.282, 21.090, 19.199 and 14.209 µm, and to explore the physicochemical characteristics of Matcha at different particle sizes. The results show that with the pulverization time prolonged, the particle size of the powder gradually decreased and the degree of cell breakage increased remarkably. However, the functional group structure of the main component of the tea powder did not change. When the particle size was refined to a certain extent, the specific surface area and surface energy increased, the particles were in an unstable energy state, and prone to adhesion and agglomeration. The bulk density of the powder reduced, which was related to the increase of the porosity of the powder. Due to the increased specific surface area of the tea sample, the internal substances of the powder exposed, so that the water content and total water content reduced. The brightness of tea powder gradually increased, and the greenness increased. With the pulverization time prolonged, the content of tea polyphenols, free amino acids and other substances increased first and then decreased, while the contents of ascorbic acid and EGCG tended to reduce. The above results show that the superfine grinding process had a significant impact on the physicochemical characteristics of Matcha.
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    Structure and Dynamic Analysis of Spider Population of Tea Garden in Taishan Region
    LI Wei-wei, LIU Yu, ZHANG Li-xia, YANG Chao
    Journal of Tea Science    2012, 32 (4): 341-346.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2012.04.008
    Abstract491)      PDF(pc) (950KB)(355)       Save
    In the investigation of tea garden in Taishan region, 1095 individual spiders were collected and identified as 13 families and 40 species, which 77.90% of them belong to the group which active on the ground and 21.91% belong to the making web group. Four types of spider species including Pardosa astrigera, Trochosa suiningensis, Anahita fauna and Coelotes taishanensis were the doninant spiders in Taishan tea garden, and showed different dynamic changes in a year. Spiders of Taishan tea garden are active in all the year, the numbers are least in February, most in August and maintain high level during the period of June to September.
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    Cited: Baidu(3)
    Cloning and Expression Analysis of CssHSP18.1 Gene in Camellia Sinensis
    JIANG Junmei, FANG Yuanpeng, NING Na, CHEN Meiqing, YANG Zaifu, WANG Yong, LI Xiangyang, XIE Xin
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (3): 328-340.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.03.004
    Abstract590)      PDF(pc) (1059KB)(355)       Save
    The sHSPs gene family encodes a class of small molecular heat shock proteins, which are widely distributed in plants, functioned as molecular chaperones, and play an important role in plant resistance to stresses. In this study, the open reading frame (ORF) of CssHSP18.1 gene cDNA was obtained by gene cloning, which is 480 bp in length and encodes 159 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis showed that CssHSP18.1 protein contained a typical HSP20 domain. Its molecular weight and isoelectric point are about 18.25 kDa and 5.68 respectively. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that CssHSP18.1 has the closest relationship with quercus and apple. It was predicted that CssHSP18.1 protein was does not have signal peptide and transmembrane structure. RT-qPCR analysis showed that the expression of CssHSP18.1 under D-Mannitol treatment was lower than that in the control group. GABA could enhance the expression of CssHSP18.1 with its peak at 1 h after GABA treatment. The expression of CssHSP18.1 was upregulated upon IAA and PEG 6000 treatments, and reached the peaks at 0.5 h. Thus, GABA、IAA、PEG 6000 could induce the expression of CssHSP18.1. To obtain CssHSP18.1 soluble protein, a recombinant plasmid pET-28a-CssHSP18.1 was constructed and expressed in prokaryotic system. The expression strains, induction temperatures and induction concentrations of IPTG (isopropyl- -D-thiopyranogalactoside) were optimized. The results showed that the best expression strain of CssHSP18.1 protein was BL21 (DE3), and the best induction temperature and IPTG concentration were 30℃ and 1.2 mmol·L-1 respectively. Finally, western blot was used to verify the expression of CssHSP18.1 protein. This study provided a basis for further study on the biological function of CssHSP18.1 gene.
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    Research Progress of Proanthocyanidins in Tea
    GAO Chenxi, HUANG Yan, SUN Weijiang
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (4): 441-453.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.04.002
    Abstract745)      PDF(pc) (517KB)(354)       Save
    Proanthocyanidins are an important kind of polyphenols in tea leaves, and regarded as natural antioxidants. In recent years, proanthocyanudins in tea leaves had attracted widespread attention. Relative research would promote the study on polyphenol metabolic pathways during tea growth process. Moreover it is of great significance in conducting fundamental research on tea plant biochemistry. Based on domestic and overseas research status, this study summarized the relationship between proanthocyandins and anthocyandins, the biosynthetic pathways of procyanidins in tea and the condensation mechanism of proanthocyandins. The types, the application status and content difference of proanthocyanidins were also concerned in an attempt to discuss the development trend in the future.
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    Construction of Tea Caffeine Synthase Gene RNAi Vector
    ZHANG Guang-hui, LIANG Yue-rong, LU Jian-liang, DONG Jun-jie
    Journal of Tea Science    2006, 26 (4): 243-248.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2006.04.002
    Abstract526)      PDF(pc) (222KB)(354)       Save
    Tea Caffeine synthase (TCS) is one of the key enzymes involved in caffieine biosynthsis in tea plant (Camellia sinensis),which catalyses conversions of 7-methylxanthine to theobromine and theobromine to caffeine. Inhibition of TCS gene expression can leads to breeding low caffeine tea cultivars. Two cDNA fragments of TCS gene were amplified by RT-PCR, and ligated into T-vector. The two TCS gene fragments were inserted into RNAi vector pFGC5941 in reverse direction after double digestion with two pairs of restriction endonucleases. The insertion of two fragments, namely pFGC5941-TCS02 and pFGC5941-TCS03, into the RNAi vector were confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing.
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    Cited: Baidu(14)
    The Ameliorative Effect of L-theanine on Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress-induced Depression in Rats
    PENG Bin, LIU Zhonghua, LIN Yong, LIN Haiyan, HUANG Jian'an
    Journal of Tea Science    2014, 34 (4): 355-363.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2014.04.006
    Abstract494)      PDF(pc) (826KB)(354)       Save
    The ameliorative effect of L-theanine on chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depression in rats and the possible mechanism were investigated. The model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats was established, and the antidepressant effect of L-theanine was evaluated through sucrose preference test, open-field test and light/dark box test. Then, the contents of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), noradrenaline (NA), adrencocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were determined by ELISA analysis for exploring the underlying mechanism. Also, the enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the serum and hippocampus were measured. The results showed that, compared with control group, the percentage of sucrose preference, the numbers of crossing and rearing, and the number of entries into light box and total duration time in model group were very significantly lower, which demonstrated the model was successfully established. Compared to the model group, the behavior of CUMS-induced depression was significantly ameliorated by the administration of L-theanine, especially that with high dose. Meanwhile, L-theanine could significantly increase the contents of 5-HT and NA, decrease the contents of ACTH and CORT in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of rats, increase the activities of SOD and GSH-Px in serum and prefrontal cortex, which further demonstrated the antidepressant function of L-theanine. The underlying mechanism might be mainly related to the enhanced secretion of monoamine neurotransmitter.
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    Cited: Baidu(6)
    Recent Advance on the Application of Near-infrared Spectroscopy in Tea
    ZHOU Jian, CHENG HaoP, WANG Li-yuan
    Journal of Tea Science    2008, 28 (4): 294-300.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2008.04.008
    Abstract590)      PDF(pc) (383KB)(351)       Save
    The recent advance on the application of Near-infrared spectroscopy in tea was introduced in this paper. Its advantage and disadvantage in comparing with the other analytical methods were also analyzed. The main reasons which limited the development of near-infrared spectroscopic technique was analyzed and the range of the application in tea was predicted in the paper. This article also gives some advices about the development of near-infrared spectroscopy in tea.
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    Cited: Baidu(12)
    Phylogenetic Analysis of Interspecies in Section Thea Through SSR Markers
    WANG Li-yuan, LIU Ben-ying, JIANG Yan-hua, DUAN Yun-shang, CHENG Hao, ZHOU Jian, TANG Yi-chun
    Journal of Tea Science    2009, 29 (5): 341-346.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2009.5.003
    Abstract411)      PDF(pc) (225KB)(350)       Save
    For the purpose of investigating the transferability and polymorphism information content (PIC) of different types of SSR primers, PCR amplification for 41 accessions from section thea was conducted in this investigation. The results showed that the SSR primers form Ser. Sinensis were highly transferable among section Thea. The polymorphic and transferable primers account for 60% of EST-SSR markers. Then the genetic diversity among 12 species of section Thea was evaluated through SSR analysis. The number of alleles in different loci ranged from 2 to 6, with average 4.21 per locus. The phyolgenetic dendrogram was constructed by the UPGMA.
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    Rapid Propagation of Tea Clonal Seedlings in Auto-controlled Greenhouse
    CHENG Hao, ZENG Jian-ming, ZHOU Jian, WANG Li-yuan, CHANG Jie, GE Ying, YUAN Hai-bo, GU Bao-jing, ZHANG Xiao-fei
    Journal of Tea Science    2007, 27 (3): 231-235.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2007.03.009
    Abstract352)      PDF(pc) (408KB)(348)       Save
    The rapid propagation of tea clonal seedling was carried out in auto-controlled greenhouse. The result showed that when the technical route of tissue culture-direct rooting-greenhouse incubating was followed, the optimal initial explant was the third axillary bud of spring shoots, which possessed the best germination rate, proliferated 2.75 times in one incubation cycle, and 20% of the cultures could grow to more than 5βcm length every cycles. On the other hand, when the technical route of direct greenhouse cutting and incubation was followed, biannual proliferation could be achieved with one started in middle March and harvested after 5 months while the height of seedlings reached 20.4±8.3βcm, the transplant survival rate of these seedlings was close to 100% after they were proper conditioned. The other proliferation started at about Aug. to Sept., after about 6 month’s incubation, the height of those seedlings reached more than 20βcm after the rootage was established during winter. The increment of seedling height of those fertilized was 5.9 times as much as those unfertilized.
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    Cited: Baidu(13)
    Effect of Ca2+ on the Chemical Components and Sensory Quality of Extracted Green Tea Infusion
    XU Yong-quan, CHEN Gen-sheng, ZHONG Xiao-yu, WANG Fang, YANG Yu-zhou, YUAN Hai-bo, YIN Jun-feng
    Journal of Tea Science    2011, 31 (3): 230-236.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2011.03.010
    Abstract484)      PDF(pc) (361KB)(347)       Save
    The effect of different Ca2+ concentration(0~100mg/L)on the chemical components and sensory quality of extracted green tea infusion was investigated. The results showed that, with the increasing of Ca2+ concentration, the turbidity of tea infusion increased, pH decreased; the contents of total solids and free amino acids increased, the contents of tea polyphenols and protein decreased, but there was no significant difference in the contents of caffeine and flavones; the contents of EGC increased, the contents of C, EGCG, GCG, ECG and CG decreased, but there was no significant difference in the contents of EC; the contents of Al3+, Cu2+, Na+, Zn2+ decreased, and the contents of K+, Mg2+, Mn2+ increased; tea infusion turned turbid, ripe and sulks odour enhanced, and bitter and astringency strengthened. The effect of Ca2+ on tea infusion quality maybe arisen by participating in tea cream formation, inducing epimerisation of catechins and appearing decomposition reaction.
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    Progress on Purine Alkaloids Metabolismin Tea and Other Plants
    ZHOU Chen-yang, JIN Ji-qiang, YAO Ming-zhe, CHEN Liang
    Journal of Tea Science    2011, 31 (2): 87-94.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2011.02.002
    Abstract397)      PDF(pc) (464KB)(346)       Save
    Purine alkaloids (e.g. caffeine) can be found in many plants. As excessive intake of caffeine could have side effects on human health, it would be of great significance to obtain a low caffeine level cultivar by regulating metabolism of purine alkaloids. The present paper summarized the distribution, biosynthesis and catabolism (including main and minor pathways) of purine alkaloids, then enzymes and cloning of related genes involved in metabolism of purine alkaloids in tea and other plants. Finally, the exiting problems and possible ways of breeding low caffeine tea cultivars are discussed.
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    Cited: Baidu(8)
    Aesthetic Image of Tea in the Tea Poems Written in Tang and Song Dynasty
    ZHU Hai-yan, LIU Zhong-hua, LIU De-hua, SHI Zhao-peng
    Journal of Tea Science    2008, 28 (2): 152-156.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2008.02.014
    Abstract432)      PDF(pc) (242KB)(346)       Save
    In modern society the relationship between tea and daily life becomes more and more intimate, and the effects of tea culture are so profound that the study upsurges have come. In view of existing situation a new study point cut-in from aesthetics was explored. In this article, knowledge of aesthetics, tea science, poem science and history science were synthetically applied to analyze the beauty of shapes, colors, fragrances, flavors of tea expressed in many exquisite tea poems written in Tang and Song Dynasty. The results vividly traced out extremely clean and perfect taste image of tea, and enriched the themes and contents of poems studies, filled up the study blank of tea poem aesthetics.
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    Cited: Baidu(1)
    Quality Analysis of Tencha Made from Different Tea Cultivars
    MAO Yalin, WANG Fang, YIN Junfeng, XU Yongquan
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (6): 782-794.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.06.007
    Abstract675)      PDF(pc) (364KB)(346)       Save
    Fresh tea leaves of eight tea cultivars commonly used to make Matcha were used as materials to analyze their differences in sensory quality, physical and chemical composition and color of the processed Tencha. The main taste substances and the differences of taste characteristics of Tencha among different cultivars were clarified according to Pearson’s linear correlation analysis of the contents (ratio) of the main chemical components and its taste attribute score, together with the Dot(dose-over-threshold)value analysis of the taste contribution . The results show that Tencha of Longjing 43 had the best overall performance with green appearance, seaweed fragrance, umami taste of tea infusion, the highest contents of both free amino acids and theanine, the lowest phenol ammonia ratio, and high chlorophyll content. Yabukita and Kyomidori followed. Correlation analysis shows that the umami taste was positively correlated with the contents of free amino acids, caffeine, theanine, aspartic acid, asparagine and the ratio of ester catechins/non-ester catechins (P<0.05). Dot analysis shows that EGCG and GCG were the main contributors to astringency. Caffeine, EGCG and GCG were the main contributors to bitterness, and EGCG was the most important contributor to astringency and bitterness of the tea infusions. While single amino acids had low contributions to the umami taste of the tea infusions (Dot<1).
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    Identification of the Geographical Origins of Oolong Tea Based on EGCG, ECG and Caffeine Contents
    CAO Qiong, SU Huan, WAN Xiaochun, NING Jingming
    Journal of Tea Science    2018, 38 (3): 237-243.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.03.003
    Abstract593)      PDF(pc) (793KB)(346)       Save
    A quantitative method to discriminate the geographical origins of Oolong teas was proposed to promote the fair of tea trade. A total of 130 Oolong tea samples were collected across China, and the chemical compositions including gallic acid, catechins, caffeine and theanine were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Genetic algorithm and successive projections algorithm were applied to identify important compounds, and then support vector machine, back propagation artificial neural networks and random forest models were used to classify and predict Oolong tea samples from Minnan, Minbei, Guangdong and Taiwan based on the selected compounds. The overall results indicated that compounds selected by genetic algorithm (caffeine, EGCG and ECG) combined with back propagation artificial neural networks could achieve a high efficiency in identifying Oolong tea samples from four origins, and the total identification rate in the training and prediction sets were 97.13% and 98.34%. The results provided scientific credibility to identify Oolong tea origins.
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    The Cloning of Transcription Factor Gene CsDREB-A4 and The Response to Temperature Stress in Camellia sinensis
    LIU Zhiwei, XIONG Yangyang, LI Tong, YAN Yajun, HAN Hongrun, WU Zhijun, ZHUANG Jing
    Journal of Tea Science    2015, 35 (1): 24-34.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.01.006
    Abstract449)      PDF(pc) (2055KB)(346)       Save
    The CsDREB-A4 gene, which encoding to the DREB transcription factor, was cloned by PCR using DNA as template from tea plant (Camellia sinensis) cultivar ‘Yingshuang’, based on transcriptome data of ‘Yingshuang’. The open reading frame lengths of CsDREB-A4 gene was 708βbp, encoding 235 amino acids. The transcription factor of CsDREB-A4 contained the AP2 DNA binding domain, and had high homology with DERB transcription factors of Glycine max, Solanum lycopersicum, Vitis vinifera, Arabidopsis thaliana, and so on. Phylogenetic tree, hydrophilicity, disordered residues, two- and three-dimension structure of CsDREB-A4 transcription factor were also predicted and analyzed. Results showed that the disordered residues of CsDREB-A4 factor were obvious. The three-dimension structure of CsDREB-A4 factor was similar to AtERF1. The CsDREB-A4 factor, the majority of amino acid were hydrophilic, belonged to A4 group of DREB subfamily of AP2/ERF family transcription factors. The three-dimension structure was similar to AtERF1, the CsDREB-A4 gene was induced by high temperature and low temperature treatment in ‘Anjibaicha’, ‘Yingshuang’ and ‘Yunnanshilixiang’, respectively. The expression levels of CsDREB-A4 gene reached a maximum at 24 h in the three tea plant cultivars, which increased 23, 4, 43 times when exposed at 4℃. In ‘Yingshuang’ and ‘Yunnanshilixiang’, the expression levels of CsDREB-A4 gene were up-regulated more longer time and higher than that in ‘Anjibaicha’. The expression level of CsDREB-A4 gene was inhibited in ‘Yingshuang’ and ‘Yunnanshilixiang’ when exposed at 38℃ temperature, except at 8 h. In ‘Anjibaicha’, the expression level of CsDREB-A4 gene was increased obviously, and reached 2 720 times in 12 h than that in wild type tea plant.
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    Thinking on the Taxonomy of Camellia sect. Thea
    YANG Shixiong
    Journal of Tea Science    2021, 41 (4): 439-453.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2021.04.001
    Abstract762)      PDF(pc) (863KB)(345)       Save
    Camellia sect. Thea, a group of high economic value, is extremely complicated in taxonomy because of the diversity and the continuity of interspecies morphological characters. There exist lots of controversies of current classification systems about sectional taxonomic circumscription and species definition. Here the taxonomic history of Sect. Thea was systematically reviewed. Some taxonomists’ views on the causes of the taxonomic confusion and how to improve the taxonomy were also presented.
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    Comparison on Chemical Components of Yunnan and Fuding White Tea Based on Metabolomics Approach
    GAO Jianjian, CHEN Dan, PENG Jiakun, WU Wenliang, CAI Liangsui, CAI Yawei, TIAN Jun, WAN Yunlong, SUN Weijiang, HUANG Yan, WANG Zhe, LIN Zhi, DAI Weidong
    Journal of Tea Science    2022, 42 (5): 623-637.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.20220601.001
    Abstract573)      PDF(pc) (1197KB)(345)       Save
    In order to investigate the differences in chemical compositions between Yunnan white tea and Fuding white tea, 9 Yunnan white tea samples and 6 Fuding white tea samples were studied by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometer (UHPLC-Q-Exactive/MS) combined with sensory evaluation to analyze the non-volatile chemical components of white tea in two places. A total of 109 compounds were structurally identified in this study, including catechins, dimeric catechins, flavonoid glycosides (flavone/flavonol-O-glycosides and flavone/flavonol-C-glycosides), N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinone-substituted flavan-3-ols (EPSFs), amino acids, phenolic acids, organic acids, alkaloids, lipids, et al. The partial least squares discriminant analysis and heatmap analysis show that there were distinct differences in the chemical components between Yunnan white tea and Fuding white tea. A total of 46 compounds showed significant differences between groups (P<0.05). The contents of epicatechins, dimericcatechins, flavonoid glycosides (kaempferol-3-galactoside, quercetin-3-glucoside, etc.), phenolic acids, organic acids, and lipids were relatively high in Yunnan white tea; while the contents of nonepicatechins, flavonoid glycosides (quercetin-3-galactoside, myricetin-3-galactoside, etc.), amino acids and alkaloids were relatively higher in Fuding white tea, which was speculated to be related with tea cultivars and drying processes. This study provided a theoretical basis for the understanding and recognition of the difference in the chemical substance and flavor quality of different white tea between two places, as well as the identification of white tea origins.
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    Advances in Researches on Catechins Acylation Modification
    LIU Xiao-hui, JIANG He-yuan, ZHANG Jian-yong, YUAN Xin-yue, CUI Hong-chun
    Journal of Tea Science    2009, 29 (1): 1-8.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2009.1.001
    Abstract400)      PDF(pc) (287KB)(344)       Save
    Researchers and the general public have been paid more and more attention to catechins due to their distinctive and extensive bioactivities, but the further applications are restricted because its liposoluble is not high, unstability and low bioavailability in vivo. This paper reviewed the research progress of acylation modificated catechins and their physiological activities as well as the prospects of development.
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    Cited: Baidu(17)
    Journal of Tea Science    1997, 17 (01): 33-42.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.1997.01.006
    Abstract326)      PDF(pc) (131KB)(344)       Save
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    A Case Study of Cadmium Distribution in Soil-Tea Plant-Tea Soup System in Central Fujian Province and Relative Health Risk Assessment
    WANG Feng, SHAN Ruiyang, CHEN Yuzhen, LIN Dongliang, ZANG Chunrong, CHEN Changsong, YOU Zhiming, YU Wenquan
    Journal of Tea Science    2018, 38 (5): 537-546.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.05.011
    Abstract530)      PDF(pc) (829KB)(342)       Save
    Extensive soil and tea tree samples were collected from 8 tea gardens in central Fujian Province to assess the cadmium (Cd) distributions and explore the Cd transportation from tea garden soil, tea leaf to tea soups. Their relations with soil physical and chemical properties were also discussed, and the preliminary health risk assessments of the Cd in tea were conducted using the USEPA health risk assessment model. The results showed that the average total soil Cd content was 112.74βμg·kg-1, which was 2.06 times higher than the background value in Fujian. The average available soil Cd content and available rate were 26.44βμg·kg-1 and 24.86%. The total and available soil Cd contents had significant but negative correlations with soil organic matter and pH value, and the available soil Cd rate was positively and significantly correlated with total and available soil phosphorus. The Cd contents of the main and secondary roots had a positive and significant correlation with the total and available Cd as well as soil organic matter. The Cd content in new leaves had a positive and significant correlation with soil available Cd and total phosphorus. The Cd distribution in tea plant followed the order as: lateral roots (1β253.89βμg·kg-1) > main roots (382.20βμg·kg-1) > main stem (167.25βμg·kg-1) ≈secondary stem (154.65βμg·kg-1) >older leaves (30.60βμg·kg-1) ≈ new leaves (27.13βμg·kg-1). The enrichment coefficients in roots were significantly higher than other tissues, suggesting the preferential accumulation of Cd in tea roots. The average Cd content in tea soup was 192.28βng·L-1, which was far below the sanitary standard for drinking water (GB 5749—2006). The dissolution ratio of Cd was 15.29%. Health risk assessment results of the tea soup and dry tea indicated that Cd of personal total annual risk of approximately 6.33×10-7 and 4.42×10-6, which were one or two order of magnitude lower than the threshold recommended by ICRP (1.0×10-5). Thus, these tea would be safe to drink.
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    Change of Polysaccharide During the Processing of Oolong Tea and its Structure Characteristic
    NI De-jiang, CHEN Yu-qiong, YU Zhi, ZHANG Yun, XIE Bi-jun, ZHOU Ji-rong
    Journal of Tea Science    2005, 25 (4): 282-288.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2005.04.008
    Abstract418)      PDF(pc) (363KB)(342)       Save
    During the process of Oolong tea, the extraction rate of TPS and the contents of its neutral sugar and protein decreased, particularly notably after the third shaking, but the content change of uronic acid was less. It was also indicated that the inhibiting effects of polysaccharide on radicals increased before the third shaking, and then decreased on Zuoqing stage. According to the changes of polyphenol content, when it was retained 85%, the content of TPS was highest and the effect on scavenging •OH and was best, which was regarded the technical index to end shaking during the process of Oolong tea. Four fractions of OTPS was obtained by DEAE-52 column chromatography, and there were obvious differences not only in contents of neutral sugar, uronic acid and protein of OTPS, but also in inhibiting effects on hydroxyl radical (•OH) and superoxide anion radical ( ). OTPS 2-1, a main fraction of OTPS, was obtained by DEAE-52 and Sephadex column chromatography. It was found that OTPS2-1 was a trinal compound of polysaccharide containing rich uronic acid and less protein. The results also showed that the molecular average-weight of OTPS2-1 was 8.877?104, and it was composed of Gal, Glu, Ara, Fuc and Rha with a molar ratio of 7.58:2.14:7.05:1.76:1.02.
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    Cited: Baidu(15)
    Inhibition of Active Compounds in Tea on Melanin Formation
    WANG Wei, CHEN Lin, WANG Weiwei, ZHANG Jianyong, JIANG Heyuan
    Journal of Tea Science    2021, 41 (1): 7-18.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.20201209.002
    Abstract611)      PDF(pc) (15038KB)(342)       Save
    Melanin is a kind of high molecular biological pigment. The color of skin is determined by the type and accumulation of melanin as well as the redistribution and degradation of melanosome. Solar ultraviolet radiation is the most common cause of melanin formation. Although melanin can protect skin cells from UV damage, the abnormal accumulation of melanin will lead to diseases related with melanin disorders. Therefore, the development of green, safe and efficient melanin inhibitors extracted from plants has become a research hotspot in recent years. Many studies have proved that extract or monomer compounds of tea could significantly inhibit (a) the activity of tyrosinase, (b) the growth, proliferation, infiltration and metastasis of melanocytes, (c) the occurrence of skin cancer. In this paper, the research progress of tea active compounds inhibiting melanin formation in acellular tyrosinase test system, cell test system, animal model and human skin was reviewed to fully explore the key active compounds, find a safe and efficient inhibitor of melanin synthesis and provide reference for the comprehensive utilization of tea products and increasing the added value of tea industry.
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    Re-analysis of the Phenomena and Causation of Flourishing Tea Culture in Tang Dynasty
    JIA Yue-qian, BAO Gong-min, ZHU Jian-qing
    Journal of Tea Science    2009, 29 (1): 72-78.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2009.1.012
    Abstract439)      PDF(pc) (250KB)(341)       Save
    The paper re-analyzes the phenomena and causation of flourishing tea culture in Tang dynasty in China, which would help to clarify amphibolous view whether tea culture was first flourishing in Tang dynasty (A.D. 608~907) or North Song dynasty (A.D. 960~1127). The authors point out that Tang dynasty is a landmark time in the formation of tea culture and set the base tone of the subsequent development of tea culture. The paper lists six initial phenomena of flourishing tea culture in Tang dynasty and indicates six possible causations.
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    Cited: Baidu(3)
    Journal of Tea Science    2002, 22 (02): 98-104.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2002.02.002
    Abstract327)      PDF(pc) (419KB)(341)       Save
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    Preparation, Analysis and Application of Black Tea Flavor Used in Cigarette
    JIANG Mei-hong, BAO Chong-yan, NIAN Xiao-kui, LIU Li-fen, ZHU Dong-lai, ZHE Wei
    Journal of Tea Science    2007, 27 (2): 117-119.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2007.02.004
    Abstract383)      PDF(pc) (403KB)(340)       Save
    The black tea flavor used in cigarette was made from Yunnan black tea leaf by using special technique. The product possessed the characteristic aroma of Yunnan black tea and as well as the flavor roasting aroma. The volatile compositions in the flavor were collected with SDE, and forty-eight compositions were identified and determined by GC-MS, the flavor substances contained in tobacco, such as (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol,1,6- octadien-3-ol,3,7-dimethyl-, phenylethyl alcohol, benzyl alcohol were been defined there, those low aliphatic acids 2-methyl-butanoic acid, hexanoic acid and benzaldehyde, benzeneacetaldehyde, 3-methyl-butanal, etc are important ingredients which devoted to the tobacco. The black tea cigarette flavor was added into cigarettes as tobacco flavoring and evaluated by panelists, the results indicated that the extract could enrich the tobacco flavor, reduce the irritancy of smoke and improve taste obviously.
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    Cited: Baidu(6)
    Intervention Effects of Fuzhuan Brick Tea Water Extract on Glucose Metabolism Disorder in a Mouse Model of Type Ⅱ Diabetes Mellitus
    HUANG Song, LIU Zhonghua, HUANG Jian′an, YANG Heng, LI Qin
    Journal of Tea Science    2016, 36 (3): 250-260.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2016.03.004
    Abstract449)      PDF(pc) (1667KB)(339)       Save
    In this study, streptozotocin (STZ) combined with a high-fat and high-sugar diet was used to generate a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypoglycemic effects of Fuzhuan brick tea water extract (FTEs) on T2DM-Mice. Results showed that FTEs could obviously alleviate weight loss, polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia, reduce fasting plasma glucose, increase sugar tolerance, enhance insulin concentrations and insulin sensitivity and decrease insulin resistance in the diabetic mice. Moreover, RT-qPCR analysis showed that FTEs promoted glucose transport and liver lipid metabolism, and improved the glucose metabolism in the diabetic mice by increasing the expression of PPAR-α, GLUT2, and GLUT4. Therefore, it can be concluded that FTEs could significantly improve glucose metabolism disorder symptom of T2DM-Mice by a dose-dependent manner.
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    Analysis of the Photosynthesis and Quality Components Changes in Autumn Tea
    ZHANG Lan, WEI Jipeng, SHEN Chen, YAN Peng, ZHANG Liping, LI Xin, HAN Wenyan
    Journal of Tea Science    2018, 38 (3): 271-280.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.03.007
    Abstract609)      PDF(pc) (943KB)(335)       Save
    The time courses of different indexes, including luminous intensity in the canopy, leaf temperature, photosynthetic parameters, quality component contents and the expression of genes related to quality component biosynthesis on August 19th and September 23th were measured in Longjing 43 (Camellia sinensis cv. Longjing 43). Using the results above, the effects of luminous intensity and leaf temperature on the tea photosynthesis and the influence of luminous intensity, leaf temperature and net photosynthesis rate on the accumulation of quality components and the transcription levels of biosynthetic genes could be confirmed preliminary. The results suggested that leaf temperature and photosynthetic activity of mesophyll cells were important physiological factors to affect the net photosynthesis rate of autumn tea. Moreover, the leaf temperature might influence the biosynthesis and accumulation of catechins and amino acids in autumn tea by regulating the expression of catechins biosynthetic genes, such as CsPAL, CsF35H, CsANS, CsUFGT and amino acid biosynthetic genes, including CsGS, CsGOGAT and CsTS1. Otherwise, the luminous intensity and the net photosynthesis rate of autumn tea were significantly correlated with the expression levels of genes related to catechin, amino acid and caffeine biosynthesis.
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    Effects of Organic Management Mode on Soil Fungal Community Structure and Functions in Tea Gardens
    WANG Feng, CHEN Yuzhen, WU Zhidan, YOU Zhiming, YU Wenquan, YU Xiaomin, YANG Zhenbiao
    Journal of Tea Science    2022, 42 (5): 672-688.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2022.05.008
    Abstract270)      PDF(pc) (1137KB)(335)       Save
    To study the soil fungal community compositions and functional groups under different management practices and slope positions, soil samples derived from the topsoil (0-20 cm) were collected from the upper, middle, and lower slope positions of conventional and organic tea gardens. High-throughput sequencing, functional predictions and the molecular ecological network analysis were performed to investigate the community structures, functional groups and ecological network of soil fungi, respectively. The two-way ANOVA including management practices and slope positions showed that the two-way interaction had no effect on the soil fungal community α-diversity. Regardless of the management practices and the slope positions, the predominant fungal phyla were Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Mortierellomycota. Management practices did not change the compositions of dominant fungal species, but affected their relative abundance. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) shows that the soil fungal community structures differed significantly among different management practices. The community structures of soil fungi at different slope positions were noticeably different under the conventional planting pattern (P<0.05), but were similar under the organic planting pattern (P>0.05). The linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) analysis shows that 37 biomarkers were very sensitive to the changes in the management, with different management practices enriching for different fungal populations. The numbers of degree, clustering, edges, degree centrality and closeness centrality of the fungal interaction network under the organic planting pattern were all higher than those under the conventional planting pattern, indicating that the fungal networks were more complex in the organic tea garden. Saprotrophic fungi were the dominant fungal group across all tea gardens (66.67%~70.18%). The effects of the management practices on soil fungal functions were obvious. Compared to those under the conventional planting pattern, the average abundance of endophyte-litter saprotroph-soil saprotroph, wood saprotroph and animal pathogen-endophyte-plant pathogen-undefined saprotroph significantly increased, but the average abundance of undefined saprotroph, plant pathogen and animal pathogen-plant pathogen-undefined saprotroph remarkably decreased. The spearman correlation analysis and the redundancy analysis (RDA) show that soil total phosphorus, available phosphorus, total potassium, organic matter, cation exchange capacity and pH were the main factors affecting the abundance and diversity of the soil fungal community. Organic planting drastically changes the structure and the compositions of the soil fungal community, enhances fungal network complexity and stability, and thus is beneficial to maintain the sustainable ecosystem in tea garden soil.
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    Flavor Analysis and Flavor Wheel Establishment of Ten Top Famous Tea in Zhejiang Province
    ZHANG Yingbin, JIN Shouzhen, WANG Guoqing, YU Liangzi, ZHOU Sujuan, LIU Xin, LU Chengyin
    Journal of Tea Science    2015, 35 (3): 225-232.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.03.004
    Abstract675)      PDF(pc) (742KB)(334)       Save
    78 samples of different grades(including top famous tea and special famous tea in Zhejiang province)were collected in this research. Through the sensory evaluation, an obvious flavor changes between different grades were found. While processing the data of chemical compounds in different grade samples with discriminant analysis, a well judgment can be shown, which is essentially in agreement with the sensory evaluation result. The quantity of samples with different aroma and taste types was counted, and then the characteristics of each tea were summarized. Flavor wheels were drawn after the analysis and reconstitution of the flavor types.
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    Cited: Baidu(2)
    Effect of Nitrogen Transformation Bacteria on Microbial Community and Nutrient Contents in Rhizosphere Soil of Tea Plant
    HAN Xiaoyang, ZHANG Lixia, HUANG Xiaoqin, DONG Yuhui, LI Zhi, SHANG Tao
    Journal of Tea Science    2015, 35 (5): 405-414.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.05.001
    Abstract433)      PDF(pc) (830KB)(333)       Save
    The effects of nitrogen transformation bacteria on micro-ecological environment of the rhizosphere soil of 2 years old tea plant were studied in Taian City of Shandong Province. The Bacillus subtilis (T1) and Azotobacter chroococcum (T2) were set up as inoculation treatments, and the noninoculation as the control in this research. The number of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, ammonifying bacteria, azotobacter, nitrifying bacteria and the modification of microbial diversity in rhizosphere soil in different periods were measured, using the methods of culture counting and T-RFLP. Meanwhile, the nutrient contents in the soil were also determined. The results showed that the bacterial number of T1 and T2 were significantly higher than CK, but there were no significant impact on fungi and actinomycetes. In the whole test process, the number of ammonifying bacteria and azotobacter were higher than that of CK, among which ammonifying bacteria of T1 was the most, azotobacter of T2 was the most; the nitrifying bacteria numbers of CK was significantly higher than T1 and T2. Based on T-RFLP mapping analysis and compared with the control group, microbial diversity, the richness and evenness were rise in the bacterium treatments. The ammonium nitrogen concentration of T1 and T2 were significantly higher than that of CK, but the nitrate concentration were lower than that of CK. The available P concentration of T1 and T2 significantly increased by 8% and 25% for CK. Meanwhile, the available K concentration of T1 and T2 significantly increased by 15% and 11% for CK. The inoculation of Bacillus subtilis and Azotobacter chroococcum showed the positive effects, which could improve micro-ecological environment and soil nutrients of tea rhizospheric soil.
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    Research Progress of Soil Properties in Tea Gardens and the Absorption and Translocation Mechanisms of Nutrients and Other Elements in Tea Plant
    LIU Meiya, YI Xiaoyun, SHI Yuanzhi, MA Lifeng, RUAN Jianyun
    Journal of Tea Science    2015, 35 (2): 110-120.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.02.002
    Abstract567)      PDF(pc) (747KB)(332)       Save
    The soil conditions of tea plantations as well as the management of water and fertilizers are requisites for tea plant growth and quality construction. This paper reviewed the research progresses in the recent five years on the topics of the dynamics of soil properties of tea gardens, the functions of nutrients associating with the metabolism of tea quality related components and the underneath molecular mechanisms, the management technologies of nutrition, heavy metals and rare earth elements in tea soils and their accumulation in plants. In addition to the works of the dynamics of organic matter in tea soil following the establishment of tea plantation, the contribution of carbon storage in tea ecosystems to the global C cycling has been highlighted. Molecular biological approaches are increasingly applied in the study of the community and evolvement of microbes in tea soils. Meanwhile advances in the evaluation of soil quality, the mechanism and ameliorative measures of soil acidification have been made. The recent progresses in the area of nutrition have greatly deepened our understandings of the functions of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the metabolism of tea quality components. The characteristics of nutrient absorption were elucidated at molecular and physiological levels and putative genes of several nutrient transporters were cloned. Adoption of mechanical fertilization, fertigation and controlled releasing chemical fertilizers were recommended as measures of nutrient management to improve utilization efficiency while the environmental impacts of fertilization such as emission of greenhouse gases gained considerable focus. On the other hand, progresses were made in the field of safety of tea products as heavy metals in the soils of tea plantations and accumulation of these elements in the tea plants are concerned.
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    Cited: Baidu(6)
    Effect of Interactions Between EGCG and Zn2+ on the Growth of Prostate Cancer PC-3 Cells
    CHEN Xun, YU Hai-ning, SHEN Sheng-rong
    Journal of Tea Science    2006, 26 (3): 219-224.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2006.03.013
    Abstract362)      PDF(pc) (302KB)(331)       Save
    In the present paper, effects of EGCG and interactions of EGCG with Zn2+on the growth of androgen-insensitive human prostate cancer cells (PC-3) were investigated by MTT assay. Effects of EGCG and Zn2+ on absorption of zinc and cadmium in PC-3 cells were detected by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) assay; and also the changes of Zn2+ on the partition coefficients of EGCG in n-octanol/PBS or n-octanol / water system were determined by HPLC technique. EGCG was screened for growth inhibition of PC-3 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. Both Zn 2+ and EGCG decreased viability of PC-3 cells in dose- and time-dependent relations, and Zn2+ ameliorated the effect of EGCG on the growth of PC-3 cells. Also, Zn2+ decreased the absorption of PC-3 cells on Cd2+, and EGCG could enhance the effect as well.
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    Activity Changes in Several Extracellular Enzymes of Eurotium cristatum Fungi During its Growth Period
    CHEN Gui-mei, DENG Yong-liang, HUANG Ya-ya, ZHANG Yue, JI Xiao-ming, ZHOU Xing-chang, HU Xin
    Journal of Tea Science    2013, 33 (4): 306-310.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2013.04.003
    Abstract579)      PDF(pc) (521KB)(328)       Save
    In order to explore extra-cellular enzyme secreted by Eurotium cristatum fungi, the enzymatic productivity and activity changes on carboxymethyl cellulase(CMCase), proteinase, amylase, pectinase and lipase were analyzed according to the methods of hydrolyzed circle and liquid cultivation. The results showed that there were obvious hydrolyzed circles appearsed on the plate medium with starch and olive oil, but not on plate medium with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, pectin and milk. Except lipase, other enzymes were detected and their activities were varied obviously during liquid cultivation.
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    Journal of Tea Science    2001, 21 (02): 157-160.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2001.02.019
    Abstract258)      PDF(pc) (124KB)(327)       Save
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    A Comparative Study of the Chan Tea Culture between the Lingyin Temple and the Shaolin Temple
    MA Xiao-li
    Journal of Tea Science    2012, 32 (6): 559-564.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2012.06.005
    Abstract444)      PDF(pc) (514KB)(327)       Save
    Nowadays, there is great interest to culture and tea academics in studying Chan, Chan tea and its culture. The paper is based on the knowledge of tea culture and economy of Henan and Zhejiang province and the great interest in studying Buddhism for years. By surveying the tea culture activities and its spreading, the believers and protection of knowledge and so on, the author does a comparative study of the contribution to Chan tea culture in the two temples.
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    Advances on the Research of Fungi in Pu-erh Tea
    ZHAO Zhenjun, LIU Qinjin
    Journal of Tea Science    2014, 34 (3): 205-212.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2014.03.001
    Abstract378)      PDF(pc) (651KB)(326)       Save
    During the process of Pu-erh tea post-fermentation, fungal action plays an important role in forming its specific flavor and taste. This paper summarizes the fungal colonization, the effect of fungi on the quality of Pu-erh tea and also introduces the safety of fungi.
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    Cited: Baidu(3)
    Effects of Three Amendments on Selenium Availability of Highly Acidic and Se-rich Soil in Tea Garden and their Relative Mechanisms
    XIE Shanni, ZONG Lianggang, ZHANG Qihui, DAI Rongbo, PAN Hanyue, YUAN Qiang
    Journal of Tea Science    2017, 37 (3): 299-307.  
    Abstract354)      PDF(pc) (978KB)(326)       Save
    A series of incubation experiment and field trail were carried out to study the effects and mechanisms of three amendments (straw charcoal, calcium-magnesium phosphate and earthworm liquid fertilizer) and their different applying modes on selenium (Se) availability of highly acidic and Se-rich soil in tea gardens. The results of incubation experiment showed that all treatments increased soil pH and the contents of available Se, but decreased the contents of exchangeable aluminum (Al) significantly. Se was transformed from organic bound form to soluble form, and Al was transformed from exchangeable form to organic complexed form by morphological analysis. The results of field trail showed that different applying modes effectively inhibited further soil acidification, enhanced the availability of Se and increased the Se content in tea leaves simultaneously. A combined application of straw charcoal, calcium-magnesium phosphate and earthworm liquid fertilizer showed the highest effects. The results of this research provide reference to develop Se-enriched tea in acidic and selenium-rich area.
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    Study on Correction Coefficient of a New Anthrone Sulfuric Acid Method for Determination of Polysaccharides in Tea (Camellia sinensis) Flower
    ZHANG Xinghai, XU Jinwei, ZHOU Xiaohong, YU Peili, TU Youying
    Journal of Tea Science    2015, 35 (2): 151-157.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.02.007
    Abstract417)      PDF(pc) (562KB)(325)       Save
    :A method for correction coefficient of anthrone sulfuric acid to detect the polysaccharides in tea flower was established. According to the law of conservation of mass and normal anthrone sulfuric acid method determination of polysaccharide, correction coefficient for a new detection method of anthrone sulfuric acid (f) was constructed through the combined use of ion chromatography technology, which laid the foundation for the tea flower polysaccharide detection technology with fast, accurate and objective charcteristics. The results showed that the correction coefficient were 2.84 and 4.49 when galactose and glucose were used as standard reference substance respectively. The method had good stability (RSDglucose=1.7%, RSDgalactose=1.0%), high precision (RSDglucose=1.4%, RSDgalactose=2.0%), strong repeatability (RSDglucose=3.2%, RSDgalactose=2.5%) and well recovery (recoveryglucose=91.3%-104.1%, recoverygalactose=95.9%-104.4%). Tea flower polysaccharide contents determined by the new method were 10.30%, 10.07% and 9.99% respectively in samples from Anhui, Sichuan and Zhejiang provinces, which were higher than the value determined by conventional anthrone sulfuric acid method. Monosaccharide composition analysis of polysaccharides in tea flower showed that galactose was better to be used as standard reference.
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    RP-HPLC Determination of Seventeen Free Amino Acids in Tea with O-phthalaldehyde Precolumn Derivation
    YANG Wei, XIAN Shu, LI Da-xiang, WAN Xiao-chun
    Journal of Tea Science    2011, 31 (3): 211-217.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2011.03.008
    Abstract676)      PDF(pc) (387KB)(324)       Save
    In this paper, a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography combined with precolumn derivatization with O-phthalaldehyde and ?uorescence detection was set up for the qualitatively and quantitatively analysis of seventeen kinds of free amino acids in tea. The RSD of the retention time and peak area of the 17 kinds of free amino acids were 0.02%~0.70% and 0.11%~1.15%, respectively. With validation, this method was proved to be accurate, stable and reproducible for the analysis of free amino acids in tea.
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    Advances in the Application of Metabolomics in the Study of Physiological and Biochemical Metabolism of Tea Plants [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze]
    MAO Chun, HE Ji, WEN Xuefeng, WU Chuanmei, YI Chengxi, LIAN Jianhong, GUO Wenmin
    Journal of Tea Science    2023, 43 (5): 607-620.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2023.05.009
    Abstract208)      PDF(pc) (477KB)(323)       Save
    Tea is a leafy perennial crop, and its physiological metabolism is significantly affected by external environmental factors. Main biochemical components such as amino acids, caffeine and tea polyphenols not only give tea unique flavor quality and health characteristics, but also are important contributors to the resistance of tea plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. Metabolomics technologies have the characteristics of high throughput, high sensitivity and systematization. They can identify and quantify tea metabolites comprehensively, accurately and quickly. The in-depth study of metabolomics provides a technical platform for the further development and utilization of tea metabolites. This paper reviewed the applications of metabolomics in the study of physiological and biochemical metabolism (photosynthesis, respiration, carbon and nitrogen metabolism) and metabolism of main quality biochemical components (flavonoids, alkaloids, amino acids, etc.) of tea plants in recent years, and prospected the future applications of metabolomics in the field of tea, so as to provide some theoretical references for further tea management, cultivar breeding and quality improvement.
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    Study on the Safety of Pu-erh Tea Contaminated by Exogenous Aspergillus flavus
    LI Yali, XING Qianqian, TU Qing, ZHOU Hongjie
    Journal of Tea Science    2017, 37 (5): 513-522.  
    Abstract488)      PDF(pc) (1179KB)(323)       Save
    Yunnan Pu-erh tea was used as experimental material. Aspergillus flavus strains YM31882 were inoculated into Pu-erh tea, and the Pu-erh tea un-inoculated by strains was taken as the control. The storage conditions were (1) temperature 30℃, humidity 90%. (2) temperature 30℃, humidity 90% and (3) room temperature. The tea samples were storage for 7, 14, 21and 28 days respectively and then collected for yellow aspergillus toxin detection by LC-MS / MS. The results showed that none of the aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 was detected in tested samples. indicating that storage process could avoid Aspergillus flavus contamination in Pu-erh tea, In summary, Pu-erh tea is safe to drink in this field.
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    Perchlorate Contamination in Tea and Its Analytical Techniques
    DENG Jiajun, PAN Hua, ZHANG Fusheng, ZHANG Li, CAO Fang, ZHANG Zhifang, CHEN Junsong
    Journal of Tea Science    2019, 39 (4): 372-381.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.04.002
    Abstract643)      PDF(pc) (295KB)(322)       Save
    Perchlorate in tea, as an emerging contaminant, poses a potential risk for food safety, human health and foreign trade, which has raised increasing concerns over the contamination of tea with perchlorate. In this paper, pollution sources, status and the main causes of pollution in tea of perchlorate were described. The analytical techniques of perchlorate in tea samples were also summarized. These data would provide references for studies of environmental transport behaviors, agri-food safety, human health risk and relevant standards of security in China.
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    Determination of Aflatoxins B1 in Tea by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Fluorescence Detector with Post-column Photochemical Reaction
    ZHAO Hao-jun, WANG Kun, YANG Wei-hua, YANG Chao-yi
    Journal of Tea Science    2013, 33 (3): 237-241.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2013.03.001
    Abstract507)      PDF(pc) (540KB)(322)       Save
    A new method for the sensitive determination of Aflatoxins B1 in tea by high performance liquid chromatography with photoelectric reactor and fluorescence detector was established. A solution of V(acetonitrile)∶V(H2O)=86∶14 was used to extract Aflatoxins B1 from tea. The extracted solution was then purified by a multifunctional and immuneaffinity column, respectively. The peak area and the concentration of Aflatoxins B1 showed a good linear relationship within the range from 0.591βμg/L to 5.91βμg/L with a linear correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9994. The recoveries at the concentrations studied [low level (7.090βμg/kg), high level (14.180βμg/kg)] were between 85.6% and 98.9% with a relative standard deviations ranging from 1.7% to 1.8%. The limit of detection (LOD) is 0.1βμg/kg (S/N=3). The limit of quantitation (LOQ) is (0.591βμg/kg). The new method was used to analyze eight tea samples collected from the local markets and negative results were obtained. The method is suitable for detection of Aflatoxins B1 in tea with high selectivity and sensitivity.
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    Cited: Baidu(10)
    Red paleosols and Tea Plant Growth in China
    LU Jing-gang, WU Jian-jun, ZHAO Dong, TANG Gen-nian
    Journal of Tea Science    2006, 26 (2): 87-90.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2006.02.002
    Abstract568)      PDF(pc) (389KB)(322)       Save
    This paper tallied up that the distribution of plinthitic red paleosol is just coincide with the tea in the area north of Yantze River(Fig.1).Moreover, there are two tea areas outside of the red earth zone on the distributional map (Rizhao area in Shangdong Province. And Chayu area in Tibet)。It can be recognized that both of them had been influenced by the red paleosol on the soil property. All of these showed that the red paleosol could promote the tea plant growth.Therefore the influences of the red paleosol should not be negnected on the study of tea garden soil.
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    Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Pure Theanine
    YAN Shou He, Jean-Pierre DUFOUR, Marc MEURENS
    Journal of Tea Science    2003, 23 (2): 99-104.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2003.02.003
    Abstract608)      PDF(pc) (337KB)(321)       Save
    An improved synthesis method of L-Theanine, γ - glutamylethylamide was reported as the dehydratation of L-glutamic acid to pyrrolidone carboxylic acid (PCA), then PCA reaction with absolute ethylamine (99%, gas-liquid) with the yield of 92.6%. After re-crystallization in 84% ethanol solution the highest pure theanine (A type) is obtained with a yield of 37.4%. The crystals appear as tetra-rectangular prisms with a silk luster under transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM). The melting point of A theanine is 224°C. The B theanine synthesized from L-PCA shapes as cabbage leaves with curved borders under SEM and with a m. p. of 217 - 218°C as reference data. By using HPLC, it is confirmed that A and B theanine are mix-isomers. The A theanine consists of 47.9% L-theanine and the B theanine consists of 90.9% L-theanine. The rotation (α) of 100% L- theanine was + 8.57°.
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    Journal of Tea Science    2000, 20 (01): 59-66.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2000.01.013
    Abstract289)      PDF(pc) (2571KB)(321)       Save
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    Effects of Different Fertilizer Application Systems on Nitrogen Nutrition in Tea Garden Soil and Yield-Quality of Tea Plant
    ZHU Xujun, WANG Yuhua, ZHANG Yu, XIAO Runlin, LI Xinghui
    Journal of Tea Science    2015, 35 (3): 248-254.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.03.007
    Abstract433)      PDF(pc) (545KB)(321)       Save
    Through field test by setting factors of nitrogen level and organic/chemical fertilizer ratio, we studied the effects of different fertilizer application systems on organic matter and nitrogen nutrition in tea garden soil, as well as tea yield & quality were investigated. The results showed that contents of organic matter and total nitrogen were significantly increased under all various fertilizer treatments, and applying 75% organic manure combined with 25% chemical fertilizers with 900βkg·hm-2 high nitrogen level exhibited the most remarkable increasing effects. Compared with no fertilization treatment, indicators of tea production including the bud-leaf density, 100-bud weight were increased under all various fertilizer treatments. Furthermore, the quality indicators of spring tea were dramatically increased under such fertilizer treatments that organic manure more than 25%, the tea quality improved more while organic manure was more than 50%.
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    Cited: Baidu(6)
    Development of a CRISPR/Cas9 Constructed for Genome Editing of Caffeine Synthase in Camellia sinensis
    TANG Yuwei, LIU Liping, WANG Ruoxian, CHEN Yuhong, LIU Zhonghua, LIU Shuoqian
    Journal of Tea Science    2016, 36 (4): 414-426.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2016.04.010
    Abstract741)      PDF(pc) (1013KB)(321)       Save
    CRISPR/Cas9 technology (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9) is a novel and powerful approach for targeted genome editing, such as targeted gene knock out or site-directed mutagenesis in a simple and easy way. Since its establishment, the CRISPR/Cas9 technique has been successfully applied in many eukaryotic organisms, including more than 10 plant species. However, it has not been available for genome editing of tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] due to the difficulty in constructing CRISPR/Cas9 expression vector. The present work developed an efficient method to construct a CRISPR/Cas9 expression vector for genome editing a tea caffeine synthase (TCS) by using general PCR, overlapping PCR and golden gate cloning technology. The present work would promote the application of CRISPR/Cas9 technology in genomic modification in tea plants.
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    Influence of AM on the Growth of Tea Plant and Tea Quality under Salt Stress
    LIU Jie, XIAO Bin, WANG Li-xia, LI Jiao, PU Guo-tao, GAO Ting, LIU Wen
    Journal of Tea Science    2013, 33 (2): 140-146.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2013.02.012
    Abstract419)      PDF(pc) (628KB)(320)       Save
    By adopting mesocosm experiment, Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze var. Wuniuzao tea plant was used as test material. This paper studied the effects of inoculating arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the growth of tea plant, the absorption of mineral nutrition, the water content in leaf tissue and the quality of tea under salt stress. AMF-inoculation could effectively promote growth and nutrient uptake of tea plant, deccrese the water saturation deficit and improve the growth quality of tea plant and the quality of tea, compared with ordinary cultivation. Under salt stress, the growth of treated tea plant was inhibited, and N, P, K, Mg, Fe and Zn contents in the treated tea plant, K+/Na+ ratio and fruit yield were all decreased, while inoculation with AMF could mitigate the inhibitory effect of salt stress on tea plant growth, made the N, P, K, Mg, Fe, Zn contents in the tea plants were increased by 7.7%, 31.2%, 20.2%, 23.8%, 9.4% and 9.5%, respectively, comared with the control tea plant, and made K+/Na+ ratio of the plant increased obviously. It was suggested that AMF could promote the plant growth and nutrient uptake of tea plant under salt stress, increase the plant salt-tolerance, and improve the tea yield and nutrient quality.
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    Cited: Baidu(9)
    Progress in the Research of Biosynthesis of Volatile Terpenoids and Their Glycosides in Tea Plant
    HE Zhi-rong, XIANG Wei, XU Yan, GAO Li-ping, XIA Tao, WEI Shu
    Journal of Tea Science    2012, 32 (1): 1-8.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2012.01.008
    Abstract664)      PDF(pc) (690KB)(320)       Save
    Tea aromatic quality is largely dependent on the spectrum and abundance of volatile terpenoids and their glycosides produced and accumulated in tea leaves. Very often, the compounds of monoterpenes (C10) and sesquinterpene (C15) possess pleasant floral scent, contributing significantly to tea aromatic quality. However, studying on the biosynthesis pathway of these volatile terpenoids and their glycosides in tea plant is just at beginning. In this review, speed-limiting biosynthetic steps and related enzymes in plant volatile terpenoid biosynthesis pathways are summarized. The genes encoding 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) and 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) as well as terpenoid synthases are proposed as key enzymes for volatile terpenoid biosynthesis. Uridine diphosphate-glycosyltransferase may affect biosynthesis and accumulation of glycosides of volatile terpenoids in tea plant while glycosidase play a key role in the glycoside hydrolysis and release of glycosidically bound terpenoid volatiles during tea leaf processing. Manipulation of these genes may control the flux of the terpenoid metabolism towards the volatile terpenoid biosynthesis. The factors influencing tea aromatic quality such as tea cultivars, growing management, processing ways are also discussed.
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    Cited: Baidu(17)
    Application of Enzyme Engineering Technology in Tea Deep-processing and Its Perspectives
    WANG Bin, JIANG He-yuan, ZHANG Jiang-yong, WANG Yan, HUANG Yong-dong
    Journal of Tea Science    2010, 30 (S1): 521-526.  
    Abstract267)      PDF(pc) (240KB)(320)       Save
    This paper summarized the application situation of enzyme engineering technology in the biosynthesis of theaflavins, theanine and catechins (EGCG) derivatives, the extraction of polyphenols and polysaccharide, the clarification and flavor preservation of tea beverage in recent years, and discussed the perspectives of enzyme engineering technology applying in tea deep-processing in the coming future.
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    Cited: Baidu(7)
    Research Progress on the Health Functions of Tea Polyphenols and Development of Healthy Foods
    WU Xin-rong, WANG Yue-fei, ZHANG Shi-kang, XU Ping, YANG Xian-qiang
    Journal of Tea Science    2010, 30 (S1): 501-505.  
    Abstract357)      PDF(pc) (182KB)(318)       Save
    As a great natural antioxidant, tea polyphenols (TP) and its health function has been one of hot-topic studies at home and abroad. This paper reviewed the new outcomes of epidemiological and clinical studies on tea and health, which including prevention and treatment of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and other diseases by TP. Meanwhile the current development and prospects on healthy foods of TP were also mentioned.
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    Cited: Baidu(14)
    Extraction of Tea-polyphenols from Tea Leaves by Ultrahigh Pressure Technique
    ZHANG Ge, ZHANG Ling-ling, WU Hua, ZHANG Shou-qin
    Journal of Tea Science    2006, 26 (4): 291-294.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2006.04.011
    Abstract503)      PDF(pc) (326KB)(318)       Save
    The extactrion of tea-polyphenols from tea leaves by using the ultrahigh pressure extraction technology (UPE) was studied. The experiment was designed with orthogonal method, and the yield of tea-polyphenols is used as the testing index. The extract conditions, including of the solvent concentration, pressure, the holding time of pressure and the soaking time before extraction, were investigated. The optimum extraction conditions are as follow, 60% ethanol, 200βMPa holding 3βmin., soaking 0.5 hr. The yield of tea-polyphenols is 28.92% under the optimum extraction condition. After separation, the yield of crude product of tea extraction is higher 25.3% than that of heat reflux method and the total of tea-polyphenols is higher 32% than that of heat reflux method. In addition, the extraction liquid of UPE is clear, easily to filter and no turbid after stored a long time. As a new extraction technology, UPE showed the great economic benefit if applied to extract tea-ployphenols from tea leaves in industrial scale.
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    Cited: Baidu(40)
    Study on the Inhibition of Mixture of Tea-Polyphenol and Vitamin C on Helicobacter Pylori
    XIAO Bo, QU Hui-ge, HUANG Qing-rong, YU Chuan-chuan, ZHAO Bo
    Journal of Tea Science    2006, 26 (4): 295-298.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2006.04.012
    Abstract599)      PDF(pc) (348KB)(318)       Save
    The mixture of tea-polyphenol (TP) and vitamin C(VC) with various concentrations were interfused into the liquid medium, then the inhibitive effect of the mixture on Helicobacter Pylori was determined in vitro. The result indicates that the inhibitive effect of the mixed solution of tea-polyphenol and vitamin C is more efficient than that of individuals, separately. The strongest inhibition is 98.23% when the concentration of mixture is TP 1.2βmg/ml, VC 0.08βmg/ml.
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    Review on Enzymatic Biosynthesis of Theanine
    CHEN Lin, ZHANG Zheng-zhu, CHEN Jian, ZHANG Ying-gen, WAN Xiao-chun
    Journal of Tea Science    2011, 31 (1): 1-10.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2011.01.001
    Abstract439)      PDF(pc) (350KB)(318)       Save
    As a characteristic component in tea plant (Camellia sinensis), theanine has many favorable physiological effects, such as promoting relaxation, enhancing memory, neuroprotection, modulation of chemotherapy, etc. So far, seven kinds of enzyme have been discovered by which theanine can be synthesized. They are respectively named as theanine synthetase, glutamine synthetase, γ-glutamylmethylamide synthetase, glutamate synthetase, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, glutaminase and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase. The two representative reaction types for theanine biosynthesis are linking reaction between glutamic acid and ethylamine in the presence of ATP and γ-glutamyl transfer reaction in which γ-glutamyl group from hydrolysis of glutamine is transferred to ethylamine. In order to apply and develop the exiting methods for microbial production of theanine, the ways involved in enzymatic synthesis of theanine are systematically summarized in this paper.
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    Cited: Baidu(1)
    Determination of Pesticide Residue in Fresh Tea Leaves and Dry Tea by Solid Extraction and Dispersive Solid Extraction Cleanup Coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrum
    YANG Jie, ZHOU Li, YU Huan, SUN Hezhi, WANG Xinru, ZHANG Xinzhong, YANG Mei, CHEN Zongmao, LUO Fengjian
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (3): 397-406.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2020.03.010
    Abstract637)      PDF(pc) (426KB)(318)       Save
    A method for the determination of 9 pesticide residues in fresh and dry tea was established. Residual pesticides in samples were extracted by acetonitrile, purified by Florisil/GCB solid phase extraction column, followed by absorbent of PSA and GCB as dispersed solid phase, and determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the spiked range of 0.005-1.000 mg·kg-1, the average recoveries of target pesticides in fresh leaves and dried tea were 70.3%-103.9%, and the relative standard deviations (RSD) were less than 20%. In the range of 0.005-2.000 mg·kg-1, the linear relationship of target pesticides in fresh leaves and dry tea matrix was good, with r>0.995 4. The limit of quantity (LOQ) was 0.005 mg·kg-1. The test results of actual samples showed that the method was highly sensitive and reproducible, and can meet the requirements of multi-residue detection.
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    Genetic Control Studies to Exploit Flavonoids Synthesis Pathway in Tea Biochemical Improvement
    Edward G Mamati, LIANG Yue-rong
    Journal of Tea Science    2005, 25 (2): 81-89.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2005.02.001
    Abstract334)      PDF(pc) (279KB)(317)       Save
    The main characteristic components in tea are the tea polyphenols; flavonoids derivatives and caffeine. The basic tea polyphenols are secondary metabolites among the flavonoids group of compounds that accumulate in high concentration in the young tender leaves of tea. The catechins share the major part of the biosynthetic pathway with other derivative flavonoids products, hence similar synthesis mechanisms. The widely studied pathway in several plant species is tightly controlled by a series of structural and regulatory genes determining the main products of the pathway. Understanding the biochemical, molecular and genetic control of tea polyphenols synthesis pathway is necessary in order to derive maximum value from the tea genetic improvement process. The pathway and critical genes in the flavonoids synthesis leading to the synthesis of tea catechins are discussed. Potential value for knowledge of the pathway in tea and its application is enumerated.
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    Cited: Baidu(3)
    Study on the Correlation between the Activities of Key Enzymes Involving in Anthocyanin Synthesis and the Contents of Important Polyphenols in Purple Tea
    CAO Bingbing, WANG Qiushuang, QIN Dandan, FU Donghe, FANG Kaixing, JIANG Xiaohui, LI Hongjian, WANG Qing, PAN Chendong, LI Bo, WU Hualing
    Journal of Tea Science    2020, 40 (6): 724-738.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.20201109.001
    Abstract473)      PDF(pc) (1233KB)(316)       Save
    In this study, four purple tea cultivars (strains) namely Hongye 1, Hongye 2, Danfei from Guangdong and Zijuan from Yunnan were used as the testing materials. Yinghong 9 with green buds was used as the control. The activity changing patterns of the key enzymes involved in anthocyanin synthesis were studied by the enzyme activities analysis, which revealed the relationship between the enzyme activities and biochemical components in tea. The results show that the activity of flavonoid-3-O-glycosyltransferase (UFGT), a key enzyme involved in anthocyanin synthesis, was positively correlated with the total amount of tea polyphenols and the anthocyanin contents in different samples in the same season. However, the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), chalcone synthase (CHS), flavonoid-3-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR), flavonol synthase (FLS), anthocyanin synthase (ANS) and anthocyanin reductase (ANR) were not significantly correlated with the anthocyanin contents. There was a significant and positive correlation between catechin (C) content and PAL enzyme activity in spring. Epicatechin gallate (ECG) content and DFR enzyme activity showed the same result. In addition, there was no significant correlation between the activities of CHS, F3H, ANS and ANR enzymes and polyphenols contents in different cultivars (strains) in the same season.
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    Screening and Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-time PCR Analysis in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis) under Different Nitrogen Nutrition
    LIU Yuan, WANG Liyuan, WEI Kang, CHENG Hao, ZHANG Fen, WU Liyun, HU Juan
    Journal of Tea Science    2016, 36 (1): 92-101.   DOI: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2016.01.012
    Abstract339)      PDF(pc) (1081KB)(316)       Save
    The objective of this study was to select the most reliable reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis of target tea plant genes under varying nitrogen source and availability. We chose 6 housekeeping genes which included five commonly used and one new candidates to systematically assess their expression levels at three different tissues (young leaves, mature leaves and roots) under different nitrogen regimes by qRT-PCR. GeNorm and NormFinder software were used to analyze and evaluate the data for reference genes. The results indicated that GAPDH, β-actin and RPL13 are the best reference genes for normalizing target gene expression in tea plant under different nitrogen nutrition, whereas α-tubulin and RuBP are not suitable in many experimental conditions and the best combination (GAPDH+β-actin) was recommended. Meanwhile, the expression levels of CsNRT1.2 and CsAMT1.1 in young leaves of tea plants were analyzed. The results showed that the variation tendency of CsNRT1.2 and CsAMT1.1 are exactly consistent when using GAPDH and GAPDH+β-actin as reference genes. However, the expression levels of these genes are showed significant differences when α-tubulin was used as a reference gene. Thus, validation of suitable reference genes for specific condition can guarantee the accurate quantification of the target genes in qRT-PCR analysis.