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Welcome to Journal of Tea Science,Today is
Basic Information about the Journal
Journal title: Journal of Tea science
Inscription of journal title: ZHU De
Responsible Institution: China Association for Science and Technology
Sponsored by: China Tea Science Society
Tea Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
Editing and Publishing: Editorial Office, Journal of Tea science
Start time: 1964
No. of issues: Bi-monthly
Two-Dimensional Code of Tea Science Website
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Table of Content

    25 December 2003 Volume 23 Issue s1
      
    Elite Germplasm Evaluation and Genetic Stability of Tea Plants
    YANG Ya-jun, YU Fu-lian, CHEN Ling, ZENG Jian-ming, YANG Su-juan, LI Su-fang, SHU Ai-ming, ZHANG Zhi-fang, WANG Yu-shu, WANG Hai-si, WANG Ping-sheng, XU Mei, SONG Wei-xi, GUO Ji-chun, YANG Ru-xing, ZHANG Wen-jin, CHEN Zhi-hui
    Journal of Tea Science. 2003, 23(s1):  1-8.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2003.s1.001
    Abstract ( 79 )   PDF (330KB) ( 33 )  
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    The agronomy, made tea quality, chemical components, cold resistance of 200 accessions of tea germplasms were investigated during 1996-2000. Among six accessions of elite tea germplasms, their made tea quality exceeded national clones, four with high polyphenol content (>38%), six with high caffeine content (>5.2%) and two with low caffeine content (<1%) germplasms were selected. Based on the studies of RAPD marker, isozyme and pollen morphology, the heredity of tea germplasms and their cutting offsprings was basically stable.
    Selection of Early Budding and High Quality Green-tea Cultivar
    YANG Ya-jun, YANG Su-juan, WANG Yu-shu, ZENG Jian-ming
    Journal of Tea Science. 2003, 23(s1):  9-15.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2003.s1.002
    Abstract ( 103 )   PDF (311KB) ( 59 )  
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    :The comparison test and the reginal experiment of 6 new clones including Zhongcha 108 (RadiationII) and 4 cultivars including Zhongcha 102 were carried out. The results of the comparison test showed that Zhongcha 108 was ultra-early budding clone. The content of amino acid of Zhongcha 108 was as high as 4.53% , it was suitable for the manufacture of green-tea and the quality of made-tea was excellent. Its yield was 67.23% higher than that of Fuding Dabaicha (CK). The result of regional experiment indicated that Zhongcha102 was early budding cultivar, the content of amino acid was 4.46%, it was suitable for the manufacture of green-tea and the quality of tea was excellent, the yield was 21.68% higher than that of Yingshuang (CK). The growth rate of Zhongcha 102 is vigorous and with strong cold resistance.
    Aluminium in Tea Soils, Rhizosphere Soil and The Characteristics of Al Uptake by Tea Plant
    RUAN Jian-yun, WANG Guo-qing, SHI Yuan-zhi, MA Li-feng
    Journal of Tea Science. 2003, 23(s1):  16-20.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2003.s1.004
    Abstract ( 76 )   PDF (288KB) ( 52 )  
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    This paper summarized several experiments investigating aluminium in tea soil, rhizosphere and its uptake by tea plants. The main points are as follows. 1. The content of exchangeable Al (1βmol/L KCl) ranged from 2.5 to 988βmg/kg with an average of 238βmg/kg. Amorphous and interlay Al were the main fractions. Tea planting intended to increase of water soluble and exchangeable Al fractions. 2. The content of exchangeable Al increased with the amount of applied nitrogen as urea. Exchangeable Al in rhizosphere (1 mm from the root surface) increased significantly when NH4+-N was supplied. 3. Al absorption by intact tea root was a saturation process with a fast phase at the initial stage and lagged behind after some 6 h. 4. Al below 400βµmol/L promoted the growth of root, especially increased the number and total length of lateral roots.
    Productivity and Quality Response of Tea to Balanced Nutrient Management Including K and Mg
    RUAN Jian-yun, WU Xun
    Journal of Tea Science. 2003, 23(s1):  21-26.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2003.s1.005
    Abstract ( 88 )   PDF (294KB) ( 77 )  
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    This paper summarized results of experiments with potassium and magnesium fertilization on different tea types, carried out in various tea growing areas of China. Analysis of typical soil samples from various tea growing regions indicated that the supplying capacities of K and Mg in more than half samples were classified as deficient and did not meet the demands of tea plant under present production levels. Fertilization with K and Mg greatly increased yields of the major tea types, e.g. green tea, black tea, and Oolong tea. In addition to improved productivity, it is shown that quality, e.g. free amino acids, polyphenols, caffeine as well as theaflavin and thearubigin contents of black tea were largely increased. Resistances to drought and diseases were also improved by K application. Field experiments showed that potassium chloride had similar effect as potassium sulphate. The overall results confirmed that balanced nutrition including the nutrients K and Mg is an important measure to improve productivity of tea. A preliminary recommendation of K and Mg fertilization rates based on soil K and Mg status was proposed.
    Sulphur Status and Its Adsorbing Characteristic in Soils of Tea Garden
    HAN Wen-yan, SHI Yuan-zhi, MA Li-feng, RUAN Jian-yun, XU Yun-wen
    Journal of Tea Science. 2003, 23(s1):  27-33.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2003.s1.006
    Abstract ( 76 )   PDF (328KB) ( 35 )  
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    The S contents in tea soils sampled from Zhejiang, Anhui and Jiangsu provinces, its influencing factors and adsorbing characteristics were investigated. The results showed that the available S content in tea soils ranged from 5.4 to 250.7βmg/kg with the average of 54.1βmg/kg. Among the three provinces studied, Zhejiang was the highest and Anhui the lowest. The whole S content was 24-453βmg/kg with 190.5βmg/kg on average. The ratio of available S to whole S was between 1.38% and 69.1% with average of 17.2%. The available S content was of significantly positive correlation to the whole S content, and also closely related with organic matter, pH, parental material and tea productivity, etc. The content of available S decreased by 32.8% in the last decade, resulting in the number of soil with available S content less than 40βmg/kg increased from 31.2% to 46.1%. The capacity of soil adsorption to SO42- varied with the quantities of S applied and its parental materials. The more the S fertilizer added to soils, the less proportion of added S adsorbed. The quaternary red clay showed the highest capacity to adsorb SO42-, about 53.8% of S added was adsorbed, followed by soils derived from slate and rivulet sediment, almost no adsorption to SO42- was observed in red sand soil derived from tertiary red sandstone.
    Improvement of Magnesium Nutrition for Tea Gardens on Hilly Red Soil in the Southern Hunan Province
    ZHU Yong-xin, CHEN Fu-xing
    Journal of Tea Science. 2003, 23(s1):  34-37.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2003.s1.007
    Abstract ( 84 )   PDF (278KB) ( 40 )  
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    Magnesium content in the soils and tea leaves of hilly red soil tea gardens in the southern Hunan area were determined. Results showed that the contents of available magnesium in the soils ranged in 6.29—25.98βmg/kg, with average of 13.02βmg/kg, and the content of available magnesium in tea leaves with symptom of magnesium-deficient is 264.10βmg/kg. The magnesium-deficient symptom was disappeared after applying water-soluble magnesium sulphate, and tea yield was raised for 9.8%—13.6%. By using foliar-applying magnesium fertilizer, the average increase of tea yield reached 20.8%. Applying magnesium fertilizers can also improve tea quality notablely. Compared with the control, the contents of amino acids, caffeine and water extracts were increased for 5.8%, 9.2% and 2.3% respectively. The paper also discussed the situation of magnesium nutrition of tea gardens in hilly red soil area of the southern China, and the magnesium fertilizer developing strategy was suggested as well.
    Chemical Communication Between Tea Plant-Herbivore-Natural Enemies
    CHEN Zong-mao, XU Ning, HAN Bao-yu, ZHAO Dong-xiang
    Journal of Tea Science. 2003, 23(s1):  38-45.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2003.s1.008
    Abstract ( 88 )   PDF (435KB) ( 35 )  
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    The relation of chemical communication between the host-herbivore-natural enemies is the basis of existence of the member in the food chain. The chemical communication between tea plant and the three major insect pests (tea geometrid, tea aphid, tea leafhopper) as well as the seven natural enemies was investigated by the authors. Results indicated that the location of insect pest on the tea plant depended on the volatiles emitted from the tea shoots, such as the z-3-hexen-1-ol, linanool, n-pentanol etc. Bioassay and EAG estimation showed that these compounds showed strong attractiveness and electrophysiological response to tea pests, however, they showed only a weak activities to the natural enemies. The metabolism in tea plants was changed and released the specific synomone after damaged by the pests. For example, the damage of tea geometrid induced more C5-C6 aldehyde compounds liberated and tea aphid damage induced the liberation of benzyaldehyde. The damage of tea shoots by tea leafhopper induced the release of 2,6-dimethyl-3,7-octadien-2,6-diol and indole. These compounds showed a strong attractiveness and electro-physiological response to their respective natural enemies under a very low concentration of 10-6-10-9βg/ml, however, they showed only a weak or no activities to leafhopper. The enzymes in the oral regurgitate secreted by the tea pests was the elicitor inducing the release of specific volatile synomone from tea shoots. These synomones possessed the systemic activity of translocation in tea plant.
    Studies on The Cultural Characteristics and Host Range of The Entomogenous Fungus Paecilomyces Aleurocanthus
    TANG Mei-jun, YIN Kun-shan, CHEN Xue-fen
    Journal of Tea Science. 2003, 23(s1):  46-52.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2003.s1.009
    Abstract ( 97 )   PDF (400KB) ( 57 )  
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    The morphology and the cultural characteristics on several culture media of Paecilomyces aleurocanthus were described in detail. The growth of hyphae, sporulation, conditions of mass production and host range of this fungus were studied. The results showed that the growth of hyphae on PDA and Bran-glucose Agar media was faster than that on Czapek, SDA and SMAY media. The diameters of the colony on the two types of medium were 40-42 mm, 29-35 mm respectively after 19 days’ cultivation. The sporulation of this fugus was slow, the yield of the sporulation was evidently promoted when adding nitrogen source in medium or increasing illumination time. The medium (10% wheat bran and 2% sucrose) was most suitable for liquid fermentation among 5 media; the yield of the sporulation in solid fermentation using rice shell added wheat bran was 1.6-6×108 spores per gram, yet the yield of the sporulation using static culture in shallow pan could get to 6.4-30×108 spores per gram. Artificial inoculation and field investigation showed that the Paecilomyces aleurocanthus fungi could parasitize those insect pests including Aleurocanthus spiniferus, Aspidiotus destructor and Trialeurodes vaporariorum, but couldn’t parasitize those insect pests including Ectropis obliqua 、Toxoptera aurantii 、Acaphylla theae and Empoasca vitis.
    Studies on the Effect of Ecological Factors on The Population Dynamics of Tea Pink Mite (Acaphylla theae)
    YIN Kun-shan, TANG Mei-jun, XIONG Xing-ping, CHEN Hua-cai
    Journal of Tea Science. 2003, 23(s1):  53-57.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2003.s1.010
    Abstract ( 79 )   PDF (270KB) ( 40 )  
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    The relationship between the population dynamics of the tea pink mite, Acaphylla theae, and various ecological factors were studied. Under favorable condition, the relationship of the fecundity of the mite (Y, head per head) and the cumulation of effective temperature (X, day degree) could be modeled by the equation: Y=3×10-7X3+0.0006X2+0.0164X+0.969. The development rate of the mite population was decreased when the temperature went below 18℃ or above 27℃. The most favorable relative humidity (RH) for the mite was between 75% and 90%. If RH went below 50% or above 95%, the development rate of population would be significantly decreased even stopped. There was a negative relationship between the development rate of population and precipitation or rainfall intensity. The amounts of mite on one bud 3 leaves shoot, one bud 4 leaves shoot and mature leaf were 70%, 55%, 27% of those on one bud 2 leaves shoot respectively, so the development rate of population became slower as the tea plant shoot became older. The mite development rate of population would not be affected when the initial density of mite was lower than 56.4 head per leaf, whereas it would be decreased as the density increased when the initial density was higher than 102.2 head per leaf. The natural enemies of the mite were seldom found in the field, so the effect of the natural enemies on the mite development of population was insignificant. The effect of sunshine on the population development of mite was not significant.
    Study on Clarification of Oolong Tea Beverage by Ultra-filtration
    YIN Jun-feng, QUAN Qi-ai, LUO Long-xin, QIAN Xiao-jun
    Journal of Tea Science. 2003, 23(s1):  58-62.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2003.s1.011
    Abstract ( 105 )   PDF (310KB) ( 58 )  
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    The Oolong tea juice was ultra-filtrated by using the plate-frame module and choosing three kinds of CA membrane with three pore diameter . Study on effect of different ultra-filtration process on the contents of main compounds including tea polyphenols, amino acids, caffeine, soluble sugar, pectin, protein etc in Oolong tea juices and colour difference, sensory quality, pH, ultra-filtration flux, etc. The results showed that ultra-filtration can clarify the Oolong tea juice effectively. The ultra-filtration can obstruct high-molecular mass that easy to participate higher retaining rate of the main compounds under the suitable ultra-filtration parameter. Sensory quality of the green tea juice ultra-filtrated was fine.
    Study on The Key Technique of Tea Juice Concentrating And Its Processing Equipments
    QUAN Qi-ai, YANG Zhong-ming, YING Jun-feng, SUN Cheng, LI Hu, JIN Shou-zhen, LIU Xin, DING Zhi, WANG Ji-chun
    Journal of Tea Science. 2003, 23(s1):  63-67.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2003.s1.012
    Abstract ( 101 )   PDF (349KB) ( 35 )  
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    Research results on parameters of tea juice concentrating showed that, after tea was extracted, the bulk filtration and fine filtration were carried out, then the macro molecule substances were separated and removed by using ultra-filtrating membrane method, then cycling concentrated by reverse-osmosis membrane, the high quality concentrated tea juice was obtained. The pore diameter of the ultra-filtration membrane is 8×104—10×104 molecule weight for green tea and Oolong tea, and larger than 10×104 for black tea. The working pressure of ultra-filtration membrane is 0.2~0.3βMPa, suitable temperature for tea juice is lower than 40℃. The working pressure of reverse-osmosis membrane is 1.5~3.0βMPa, suitable temperature for tea juice is lower than 50℃. The tea juice productivity of the producing line designed on the base of above technique is 100βkg/h, with concentration of tea juice 20% (Brix) and better quality compared with that of traditional product.
    Study on the Key Technology and Equipment for Low Caffeine Tea Processing
    SUN Cheng, QUAN Qi-ai, JIN Shou-zhen
    Journal of Tea Science. 2003, 23(s1):  68-72.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2003.s1.013
    Abstract ( 175 )   PDF (152KB) ( 48 )  
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    The technology of de-enzyming of tea leaf by hot water for the purpose of minimizing the caffeine in tea was discussed. Be combined with dehydration, rolling and drying, the tea had the style of the traditional roasting green tea and the caffeine contents were reduced as high as 67%. The major constituents could be as high as 82%. This leaf dredging up machine is characterized by the advantage of simple structure, convenient handing, high rate of taking off caffeine, and saving water and energy.
    Study on The Longjing Tea Roasting Machine Controlled by Computer
    LIU Xin, QUAN Qi-ai, FU Shang-wen, ZHU Shou-zhen, JIANG Xiao-wen, JIANG Yue-guang
    Journal of Tea Science. 2003, 23(s1):  73-77.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2003.s1.014
    Abstract ( 110 )   PDF (304KB) ( 29 )  
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    The Longjing tea roasting machine controlled by computer is consisted of computer, multifunction machine and performing framework. Stored the data of Longjing tea processing in the computer, the computer controlled the heating temperature, processing time, rotational speed, pressure and stopping motor during the period of Longjing tea processing. The computer stored 12 processing programs which serve at the fresh tea leaves grade and various environment. The quality of Longjing tea processed by this machine is better than that of processed by hand. Thus solving out the problem in the production of Longjing tea mainly depand on the manual operation. Besides, the automatic level in the processing of fine-quality tea was improved simultaneously.
    Study on The Shaping Mechanism of Longjing Tea in The Reciprocation Trough
    LIU Xin, FU Shang-wen, ZHU Shou-zhen, QUAN Qi-ai
    Journal of Tea Science. 2003, 23(s1):  78-81.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2003.s1.015
    Abstract ( 88 )   PDF (283KB) ( 29 )  
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    During the period of processing of longjing tea in the Reciprocation-trough type machine, the change of moisture content possessed an equal rate and a reducing rate. Because the trough movement is a standard crank mechanism, the movement equation on the displacement(s), speed(v), acceleration(a) and time(t) was established. Regarding the tea leaf as particle, the size of receiving force of tea leaf could be calculated. The tea leaves formed straight shape under the acting of strike force in reciprocation tough and formed flat shape under the pressing of weight pole.
    Biosynthesis of 14C-catechins by Tea Cell Culture
    CHENG Hao, LI Su-fang, SHEN Xing-rong, SUN Jin-he
    Journal of Tea Science. 2003, 23(s1):  82-87.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2003.s1.016
    Abstract ( 116 )   PDF (349KB) ( 27 )  
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    The preparation of 14C labeled catechins was investigated by feeding 14C labeled precursor to tea cultured cells. Two labeled precursors were tested and their effects were compared. The dynamics of absorption and transformation of fed precursors and the changes of product composition and content caused by exogenous precursor were analyzed. Product analysis was also made by HSCCC and HPLC techniques.
    Effects of Modifying pH on the Separation of Theaflavins by HSCCC
    JIANG He-yuan, CHENG Qi-kun, DU Qi-zhen
    Journal of Tea Science. 2003, 23(s1):  88-91.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2003.s1.017
    Abstract ( 98 )   PDF (326KB) ( 37 )  
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    The four main kinds of theaflavins could be separated into three parts with the solvent system (Ethyl acetate / Methanol / Hexane / Water, 3/1/1/6) on HSCCC. The different pH zone of elutes could be appeared in the case of the difference of pH between sample solution and mobile phase. Due to the fact of the separation and purification of theaflavins are influenced by the pH of solution, and the process of separation and eluation is closely related to the pH of solution, so the method of modifying pH could be used to highly concentrate the four main kinds of theaflavins from the large scale of samples.