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Welcome to Journal of Tea Science,Today is
Basic Information about the Journal
Journal title: Journal of Tea science
Inscription of journal title: ZHU De
Responsible Institution: China Association for Science and Technology
Sponsored by: China Tea Science Society
Tea Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
Editing and Publishing: Editorial Office, Journal of Tea science
Start time: 1964
No. of issues: Bi-monthly
Two-Dimensional Code of Tea Science Website
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Table of Content

    15 October 2018 Volume 38 Issue 5
      
    Differential Expression Analysis of Genes Related to Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Purple Buds of Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)
    XIANG Yi, LIU Shuoqian, GONG Zhihua, CHEN Dong, XIAO Wenjun
    Journal of Tea Science. 2018, 38(5):  439-449.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.05.001
    Abstract ( 100 )   PDF (1427KB) ( 35 )  
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    Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments which widely exist in plants. As strong free radical scavengers, they have many health benefical functions from anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation, blood pressure lowering to hypoglycemic effect. The purple tea plants are a kind of specific tea germplasm rich in anthocyanins. More and more attentions had been focused on research and utilization of purple tea plants. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple buds of tea, RNA-seq and bioinformatic analysis were performed using purple-buds cultivar 9803 and green-buds cultivar 9806 bred by Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, China. Totally 42 unigenes were identified to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, including 34 genes registered in the GenBank database and 8 genes not reported. KEGG pathway analysis showed that differentially expression genes annotated to five metabolic pathways, including flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, lignin biosynthesis pathway, flavone and flavonol biosynthesis pathway, brassinosteroid biosynthesis pathway and encoding transcription factors. The expression profiles of differentially expressed genes by qRT-PCR were consistent with transcriptome sequencing results, demonstrating the sequencing results were reliable. In summary, many differentially expressed genes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis in the purple buds of tea were identified, which laid the foundation for further investigation of the molecular mechanism of purple bud formation in tea plants.
    Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of Cytochrome P450 CYP71A26 and CYP71B34 Genes in Tea Plants (Camellia sinensis)
    SHAN Ruiyang, LIN Zhenghe, CHEN Zhihui, ZHONG Qiusheng, YOU Xiaomei, CHEN Changsong
    Journal of Tea Science. 2018, 38(5):  450-460.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.05.002
    Abstract ( 128 )   PDF (1114KB) ( 54 )  
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    The full cDNA sequences of cytochrome P450 genes, CYP71A26 and CYP71B34 were cloned from Camellia sinensis Tieguanyin leaves based on NCBI transcriptome database. The complete cDNA lengths of CYP71A26 and CYP71B34 were 1β879βbp and 1β764βbp, containing the open reading frames (ORF) of 1β539βbp and 1β533βbp, which encoded 513 and 511 amino acids, respectively. The alignment of amino acid sequences showed 42.47% of conservation between CYP71A26 and CYP71B34, which indicated that the two genes belonged to different subfamilies. The structure analysis showed that both CYP71A26 and CYP71B34 contained the classic P450 structure domains, such as helix C, helix I, helix K, Meander and heme binding domain. Phylogenetic tree analysis illustrated that there were two branches of molecular evolution for the two genes with different genetic relationship. Via predicting of their tertiary structures and functional domains, the results indicated that both genes were constituted by β-pleated structure in N-terminal, α-helix structure in C-terminal, and had a P450 protein structure domain (Pfam domain). qRT-PCR results showed that the expression of two genes in leaves showed opposite trends under pest damage treatments. Moreover, the decrease of CYP71A26 and increase of CYP71B34 in expression levels were detected under cold or thermal stresses. In total, CYP71A26 and CYP71B34 genes were respond to biotic (like pest) and abiotic (like temperature) stresses, but the changing trends of the two genes were opposite, which might be correlated with opposite regulation systems.
    Efficiency Analysis of E-commerce Management and Its Influencing Factors in Tea Enterprises
    LIN Mengxing, CHEN Fuqiao, DU Pei, JIANG Aiqing, JIANG Renhua
    Journal of Tea Science. 2018, 38(5):  461-468.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.05.003
    Abstract ( 111 )   PDF (923KB) ( 42 )  
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    In this paper, the DEA-tobit model was used to calculate the efficiency of e-commerce management and its influencing factors in tea enterprises. The study showed that the averagely comprehensive efficiency of tea e-business was 51.8% in present China, with about 48.2% promotion space. The enterprise results showed that the private groups, repurchase rates, sale promotion methods, extension ways inside and outside the platforms, and enterprises’ brand awareness had positive effects on the e-business of tea enterprises, but the number of e-commerce platforms in one company had a negative impact on the efficiency. The insignificant influences also included hot market commodities, price level, circulation channel numbers, market promotion activities and so on.
    Effects of Apical -shoots and Functional Leaves on the Fast Propagation of Tea Cuttings under the Condition of Full-illumination and Mist
    REN Hengze, XIANG Qinzeng, ZHAO Xiuxiu, CAI Lu, ZHANG Lixia
    Journal of Tea Science. 2018, 38(5):  469-479.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.05.004
    Abstract ( 93 )   PDF (1198KB) ( 41 )  
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    To shorten the breeding cycle of tea clones and improve the seedling quality, twigs of three-year-old Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze cv. Taicha 12 (Jin Xuan) were used as cuttings materials for propagation under the condition of full-illumination and mist. The effects of apical-shoots and cuttings with one, two or three mature functional leaves on rooting and growth of tea cuttings were studied. The physiological and biochemical analysis of buds and leaves of different positions were performed before the cuttage. The results showed that soluble sugar and chlorophyll content increased with the maturity of leaves increased. The net photosynthetic rate showed a similar trend with its peak in the second functional leaves. The contents of soluble protein exhibited an opposite trend with the leaf maturity and the apical shoot with one bud and tender leaves possessed the highest soluble protein contents. Both the survival and rooting rates of cuttings with mature functional leaves were 100.00%, but those for single-bud cuttings with one or two tender leaves were only 5.00% and 23.33% respectively. The best materials for rooting were the cuttings with apical shoot and three mature functional leaves, which possessed the fastest speed of rooting and had the maximum amount of roots. A large number of roots emerged from the base of stem segment within 10 days and the formation of secondary roots for 60%-70% tea cuttings only required 37 days. Its new formed functional leaves were also more than others. However, the seedling heights of tea cuttings with apical shoot and three mature functional leaves were less than those with one bud and two tender leaves. The increasement of basal stem diameter was also smaller. The formation of new functional leaves facilitated root growth and development, which could also improve survival and rooting rates. The rooting and growth of cuttings with apical shoot were better than cuttings without apical shoot.
    Heat Stress Risk Regionalization of Tea Plant in Zhejiang Province
    LOU Weiping, XIAO Qiang, SUN Ke, DENG Shengrong, YANG Ming
    Journal of Tea Science. 2018, 38(5):  480-486.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.05.005
    Abstract ( 93 )   PDF (839KB) ( 28 )  
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    Based on the climate data of meteorological stations from 1973 to 2017 in Zhejiang Province and the heat stress index of tea plant, temporal variability of heat hurting grade of tea plant was analyzed with line trend rate and Mann-kendall method. Based on Mann-kendall method, the heat injure of tea plant in Zhejiang Province was divided into three periods: 1973—1983, 1988—2002 and 2003—2017. The probabilities of heat stress to tea plant in each period were calculated with information diffusion theory. The result of t-test showed that the probability of heat hurt to tea plant in 2003—2017 was larger than in the periods of 1973—1987 and 1988—2002. Risk value of heat injure of tea plant was calculated by using probabilities of each heat hurting grade of tea plant in 2003—2017. Based on risk values, Zhejiang province could be divided into five regions: low risk, relatively low risk, moderate risk, relatively high risk and high risk areas. Among these areas, the risk values of 18 coastal counties as well as Qingyuan, Taishun and Kaihua were low. The risk values of 5 mountain counties, such as Suichang and 9 counties near the sea or Taihu were relatively low. The risk values of 13 counties in the middle of Zhejiang Province and on a plain or in the middle of the basin such as Lishui were high. The high risk area included 14 counties such as Shengzhou. The moderate risk area contained 10 counties. It could reflect the risk of heat injure of tea plant in Zhejiang Province at present and in a certain period in the future. The results provided a basis for the defense of heat stress to tea plant in Zhejiang.
    The Mechanism of Frost-like Powder and Its Effects on Lu′anguapian Tea Quality
    JIANG Yurong, LIU Sitong, GAO Jing, LI Daxiang, XIA Tao, DAI Qianying
    Journal of Tea Science. 2018, 38(5):  487-495.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.05.006
    Abstract ( 153 )   PDF (1210KB) ( 49 )  
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    The precondition of frost-like powder formation of Lu′anguapian tea and the correlation between frost-like powder and tea quality were explored by image technologies, paired preference test and traditional sensory evaluation. To identify the chemical properties of the white frost-like powder, filter paper was used to replace the tea leaves to collect white frost-like powder from the surface of the leaves during the process. The results showed that friction was the key factor for the formation of the frost-like powder. The technologies called “Lalaohuo” could not only improve the appearance of tea but also affect its flavor and taste. Based on LC-MS and GC-MS analysis, the main chemicals of white frost-like powder were very complicated, which included caffeine, catechins, flavonoid glycosides and volatiles such as terpenes.
    Effects of Co-fermentation by Eurotium cristatum and Lactobacillus plantarum on the Quality of Green Tea Liquid Beverage
    TU Zheng, MEI Huiling, LI Huan, LIU Xinqiu, Emmanuel Arkorful, ZHANG Caili, CHEN Xuan, SUN Kang, LI Xinghui
    Journal of Tea Science. 2018, 38(5):  496-507.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.05.007
    Abstract ( 190 )   PDF (1244KB) ( 278 )  
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    In order to inhibit the degradation of catechins in fermented green tea liquid beverage fermented by E. cristatum, the co-fermentation of L. plantarum and E. cristatum to green tea liquid beverage was conducted. The processing technology was optimized by response surface methodology. Besides, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and headspace solid-phase microextraction tandem mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GS-MS) method were used to detect the catechin contents and aroma components in the combined fermented green tea liquid beverage. The results showed that under the premise of 10βg·L-1 of dry tea and 10βmL·L-1 of E. cristatum, the optimal technological conditions for the combined fermentation of green tea liquid beverage were L. plantarum 20βmL·L-1, sucrose 75βg·L-1, and stationary fermentation at 30℃ for 3 days. The total catechin concentration in the joint fermented green tea liquid beverage under this process was 1β419.94βμg·mL-1, which was significantly higher than unfermented green tea liquid beverage (848.72βμg·mL-1) (P<0.05). And the contents of alcohol compounds (30.27%), aldehyde compounds (15.25%), hydrocarbon compounds (11.35%), ester compounds (9.86%) and ketone compounds (9.01%) were significantly increased (P<0.05) compared with unfermented green tea liquid beverage.
    Aroma Constituents of Longjing Tea Produced in Different Areas
    WANG Mengqi, SHAO Chenyang, ZHU Yin, ZHANG Yue, LIN Zhi, LYU Haipeng
    Journal of Tea Science. 2018, 38(5):  508-517.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.05.008
    Abstract ( 116 )   PDF (1147KB) ( 61 )  
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    Longjing tea is one of the most famous traditional tea and a typical product of geographical indication in China. In this study, the composition and relative contents of aroma components in a representative batch of Longjing tea samples of 3 different origins, namely Xihu region, Yuezhou region, and Qiantang region, were analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS). Results showed that there were some differences in the composition of aroma components among the three different regions, and 47, 45 and 40 common aroma components were identified in the tea samples from Qiantang region, Yuezhou region, and Xihu region, respectively. Moreover, Longjing tea samples from three different regions had been distinguished successfully using PLS-DA model (fitting parameters: R2Y=0.885 and Q2=0.777) which was established basing on the relative contents of aroma components. The distributions of 12 key aroma components in different areas were elucidated by the data processing software.
    Optimization of Aroma Extraction and Aroma Component Analysis on Chestnut-like Green Tea
    YIN Hongxu, YANG Yanqin, YAO Yuefeng, ZHANG Mingming, WANG Jiaqin, JIANG Yongwen, YUAN Haibo
    Journal of Tea Science. 2018, 38(5):  518-526.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.05.009
    Abstract ( 137 )   PDF (911KB) ( 107 )  
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    Fourteen green tea samples with typical chestnut-like aroma and 2 samples with sweet aroma were used as materials and the optimal conditions including the type of extraction fiber, the extraction time, the extraction temperature and electrolyte concentration were selected by comparing the extraction effect of different conditions. The optimal conditions for preparing aroma of chestnut-like green tea were explored and the characteristic peak analysis of chestnut-like green tea was carried out. Results indicated that the optimal extraction conditions of chestnut-like green tea were as follows: extraction fiber DVB/CAR/PDMS, extraction temperature at 50℃, extraction for 50βmin, electrolyte concentration of 1-3βmg·L-1. under this condition, 171 volatile compounds were detected and 30 peaks were identified as common characteristic peaks of chestnut-like green tea, including 5 alcohols, 4 alkenes, 7 alkanes. the RSDs of the relative peak areas were ≤5.0%, which showed a high repeatability. The similarity analysis of angle cosine method and correlation coefficient method proved that the characteristic peaks could well explain their contribution to chestnut-like fragrant.
    Study on the Relationship between Work Efficiency of Spherical Tea Frying Equipment and Tea Formation
    ZHAO Zhangfeng, REN Chao, ZHENG Jinsong, ZHONG Jiang, XIE Baijun
    Journal of Tea Science. 2018, 38(5):  527-536.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.05.010
    Abstract ( 163 )   PDF (1289KB) ( 55 )  
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    Based on numerical calculation and simulation of the movement and mechanical characteristic of tea particles in the frying process of spherical tea and the working efficiency analysis of the frying equipment on tea particles, the work efficiency of spherical tea frying equipment was defined and studied. Relevant test verification was also conducted. The results showed that the crank angle speed and the frying plate phase angle were the main movement and structural parameters affecting the work efficiency of spherical tea frying equipment, and the tea forming effect was positively correlated with the work efficiency of the spherical tea frying equipment, which provided the basis for the design and digital control of tea frying equipment.
    A Case Study of Cadmium Distribution in Soil-Tea Plant-Tea Soup System in Central Fujian Province and Relative Health Risk Assessment
    WANG Feng, SHAN Ruiyang, CHEN Yuzhen, LIN Dongliang, ZANG Chunrong, CHEN Changsong, YOU Zhiming, YU Wenquan
    Journal of Tea Science. 2018, 38(5):  537-546.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.05.011
    Abstract ( 144 )   PDF (829KB) ( 226 )  
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    Extensive soil and tea tree samples were collected from 8 tea gardens in central Fujian Province to assess the cadmium (Cd) distributions and explore the Cd transportation from tea garden soil, tea leaf to tea soups. Their relations with soil physical and chemical properties were also discussed, and the preliminary health risk assessments of the Cd in tea were conducted using the USEPA health risk assessment model. The results showed that the average total soil Cd content was 112.74βμg·kg-1, which was 2.06 times higher than the background value in Fujian. The average available soil Cd content and available rate were 26.44βμg·kg-1 and 24.86%. The total and available soil Cd contents had significant but negative correlations with soil organic matter and pH value, and the available soil Cd rate was positively and significantly correlated with total and available soil phosphorus. The Cd contents of the main and secondary roots had a positive and significant correlation with the total and available Cd as well as soil organic matter. The Cd content in new leaves had a positive and significant correlation with soil available Cd and total phosphorus. The Cd distribution in tea plant followed the order as: lateral roots (1β253.89βμg·kg-1) > main roots (382.20βμg·kg-1) > main stem (167.25βμg·kg-1) ≈secondary stem (154.65βμg·kg-1) >older leaves (30.60βμg·kg-1) ≈ new leaves (27.13βμg·kg-1). The enrichment coefficients in roots were significantly higher than other tissues, suggesting the preferential accumulation of Cd in tea roots. The average Cd content in tea soup was 192.28βng·L-1, which was far below the sanitary standard for drinking water (GB 5749—2006). The dissolution ratio of Cd was 15.29%. Health risk assessment results of the tea soup and dry tea indicated that Cd of personal total annual risk of approximately 6.33×10-7 and 4.42×10-6, which were one or two order of magnitude lower than the threshold recommended by ICRP (1.0×10-5). Thus, these tea would be safe to drink.