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Basic Information about the Journal
Journal title: Journal of Tea science
Inscription of journal title: ZHU De
Responsible Institution: China Association for Science and Technology
Sponsored by: China Tea Science Society
Tea Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
Editing and Publishing: Editorial Office, Journal of Tea science
Start time: 1964
No. of issues: Bi-monthly
Two-Dimensional Code of Tea Science Website
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Table of Content

    25 October 2017 Volume 37 Issue 5
      
    Determination of Green Tea Catechin Biomarkers and It′s Relative Application
    SUN Lili, ZENG Xiangquan, Nilesh W Gaikwad, WANG Huan, XU Hairong, YE Jianhui
    Journal of Tea Science. 2017, 37(5):  429-441. 
    Abstract ( 97 )   PDF (788KB) ( 46 )  
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    Green tea has been considered to have many health benefits, but there is still controversy about the clinical and epidemiological results. Development of green tea catechin biomarkers was to evaluate the physiological effects of green tea from a metabolic point of view, which will be helpful to interpret the functional mechanism of green tea in vivo and also avoid or reduce the influences of chemical compositions of samples intake or individual differences in human studies. Catechin compounds EGCG, EGC, EC, C, ECG and their derivatives are common green tea catechin biomarkers that have many determination methods including HPLC-EC, LC-MS and so on. This paper reviewed the types of green tea catechin biomarkers and their preparation and determination methods, discussed the results of biomarker-level based bioavailability studies, clinical trials and epidemiological studies, proposed suggestions for future research, such as further improvement and standardization of the preparation and determination methods of catechin biomarkers as well as development of new green tea biomarkers with higher stability in human body and sensitivity in reflecting their intake levels.
    The Repellency and Fumigant Activity of Essential Oil from Invasive Plant (Ageratum conyzoides) against Leafhopper (Empoasca onukii)
    WANG Qizhi, LIU Yumei, LI Shuming
    Journal of Tea Science. 2017, 37(5):  442-448. 
    Abstract ( 73 )   PDF (702KB) ( 36 )  
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    The biological activity of essential oil from the invasive plant species Ageratum conyzoides L. to leafhopper Empoasca onukii Matsuda was reported in this study. The effects of essential oil concentrations on E. onukii were also investigated by selecting different plants and using Y-tube olfactometer and modified fumigation methods. The chemical composition of essential oil was examined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and their relative activities was also analyzed. The results indicated that essential oil concentrations from A. conyzoides had significant effects on fumigant and repellent properties against E. onukii. High concentrations of essential oil displayed significant powerful effects. At an oil concentration of 200βμL·mL-1, the repellent rate was 100%. At concentrations of 100βμL·mL-1 and 50βμL·mL-1, the repellent rates were 91.67%±1.67% and 76.67%±1.67%, respectively. At a concentration of 5βμL·mL-1, the fumigant mortality rate at 12βh was 100%. Twenty-four essential oil constituents were identified, with the major constituents being β-caryophyllene (61.53%), precocene I (11.09%), and precocene II (7.79%). Main synergistic composition could effectively increase the repellency and fumigant activity against E. onukii. The results showed that the essential oil of A. conyzoides had significant effects against E. onukii and potential benefits as a botanical pesticide to control E. onukii.
    Analysis on Variation in Color, Aroma and Taste of Leafhopper Damaged Tea Samples Based on Sensory Organ Intelligent Analytical Instruments
    ZHENG Yuting, HAN Shanjie, HAN Baoyu
    Journal of Tea Science. 2017, 37(5):  449-457. 
    Abstract ( 90 )   PDF (1098KB) ( 76 )  
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    The tea shoots of cultivars Zijuan, Zhongcha 108 and Wuniuzao, with high, middle and low resistances to the tea green leafhopper were collected and cultured in water. Every tea shoot was introduced by 3 leafhoppers with 2 day old, and the shoots suffered for 0, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 h respectively. After being damaged, the tea shoots were plucked to produce the steamed tea samples. The taste, aroma and color of tea soup of the steamed tea samples were detected by electronic tongue, electronic nose and colorimeter respectively. The leafhopper-damaged duration was significantly and positively correlated with sourness value (SRS) and saltiness value (STS) of tea soups of three cultivars. The leafhopper-damaged duration on cultivar Zijuan was positively correlated with sourness value (BRS), and significantly negatively correlated with both umami value (UMS) and sweetness value (SWS). The leafhopper-damaged duration on cultivar Zhongcha 108 was positively correlated with BRS, and significantly positively correlated with both UMS and SWS. The leafhopper-damaged duration on cultivar Wuniuzao was significantly and negatively correlated with BRS, UMS and SWS respectively. Data acquired by electronic tongue was analyzed by the principal component analysis (PCA) and the soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). In both PCA and SIMCA coordinate systems, the six leafhopper-damaged tea samples distributed linearly for each cultivar. Data by electronic nose was also analyzed by PCA and SIMCA, then by PCA or SIMCA coordinate system, the 6 leafhopper-damaged tea samples also distributed linearly for cultivars Zijuan and Zhongcha108, but not Wuniuzao. The colorimeter results revealed that during the time course of damage from 0 h to 60 h, the chroma of yellow-green of tea soups of cultivars Zijuan and Wuniuzao deepened, and the brightness of tea soup of cultivar Zhongcha 108 obviously fell. It was considered that electronic tougue and electronic nose may effectively discriminate resistant cultivar from susceptible cultivar, and differentiate damage degree in tea samples.
    Identification of Meitan Cuiya Tea Grades Based on Visible-Near-Infrared Technology
    PENG Qingwei, LIU Yun, YU Jiancheng, WEI Xiaonan, TANG Yanlin
    Journal of Tea Science. 2017, 37(5):  458-464. 
    Abstract ( 117 )   PDF (876KB) ( 238 )  
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    In order to distinguish tea grade by using visible-near-infrared spectroscopy technique, Meitan Cuiya tea was used as materials in this study. The spectral data of all different grades Cuiya samples were collected. Firstly, Savitzky-Golay smoothing(SG), multiple scattering correction(MSC), standard normal variable transformation (SNV), first derivative, second derivative, detrending and other pretreatment methods were used to process the original spectral data of the samples. Then, the partial least squares regression (PLSR) model was established based on different preprocessing methods and raw data. The influence of different pretreatment methods on the modeling model was also studied. The results showed that the modeling of SG smoothing pretreatment method had the best effect. In order to simplify the model, three characteristic wavelength selection methods, the stepwise regression analysis (SWR), successive projection algorithm (SPA), and competitive adaptive re-weighting (CARS) were used to select the characteristic wavelength, which would be the pretreatment before the SG smoothing. Finally, PLSR modeling was performed based on the characteristic wavelengths selected by different feature wavelength algorithms. The results showed that the model based on the CARS method had the best prediction effect, with the correlation coefficient of 0.9739 and the calibration standard deviation of 0.2250. The model greatly reduced the number of independent variables, simplified the previous model, and achieved a good prediction effect, which provided a new, quick and effective method for the classification of Cuiya grades.
    Analysis of Characteristic Aroma Components of Hubei Black Tea
    ZHENG Pengcheng, LIU Panpan, GONG Ziming, WANG Shengpeng, TENG Jing, WANG Xueping, YE Fei
    Journal of Tea Science. 2017, 37(5):  465-475. 
    Abstract ( 85 )   PDF (1159KB) ( 31 )  
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    Sensory evaluation and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) were successfully applied to analyze volatile flavor compounds of 32 typical Hubei black tea by the combined use of odor active value (OAV) and principal component analysis. The result showed that the fragrant characteristics of Hubei black tea were sweet, whereas some of them had floral, fruity, sugar and high-fired aroma. A total of 93 aroma components were detected in the black teas, and the major aroma compounds were alcohols and aldehydes. Among the compounds identified, linalool, geraniol, methyl salicylate and hexanal were the major ingredients. The high OAV of linalool, β-damascenone, β-ionone, decanal, geraniol, (Z)-4-heptenal, (E)-2-nonenal, hexanal, 1-octen-3-ol and (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal indicated their importance in the aroma character of Hubei black tea. Seven principle components were extracted from the 19 common aroma compounds by SPSS and the total contribution attained 86.477%. Characteristic aroma components included linalool, geraniol, methyl salicylate, 1-octen-3-ol, β-damascenone, β-ionone, (E)-geranylacetone, benzeneacetaldehyde, decanal, hexanal, (E)-nerolidol, 2-ethylfuran and limonene, which laid the foundation for the sweet and sugar aroma of Hubei black tea.
    Effect of Microwave Fixation on the Physical Characteristics of Tea Fresh Leaves
    HUA Jinjie, YUAN Haibo, WANG Jinjin, JIANG Yongwen, DONG Chunwang, DENG Yuliang
    Journal of Tea Science. 2017, 37(5):  476-482. 
    Abstract ( 85 )   PDF (762KB) ( 49 )  
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    One leaf and a bud shoot was utilized as material and six microwave fixation time (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150βs) were setted to study the time course of microwave fixation effects on physical characteristics of tea products. Samples at different time points were taken to determine the value of water content, bulk destiny, Lab color values, length and width. The results showed that with the time course of microwave fixation, moisture content of tea fresh leaves decreased slightly first and then rapidly with the turning point at 90 s. Bulk destiny significantly reduced in first 30 s. Relative length, width and area differences were also decreased first and then increased, with the bottom at 60-90 s. L, a and b color values showed the opposite trends with the peaks at 90 s. The correlation analysis showed that L value, |a| value, b value and relative length difference were significantly affected by the microwave fixation time and water content. Overall, the best shape properties were obtained by microwave fixation for 60-90βs.
    RNA Sequencing Analysis of Fungi Community Diversity in Mildew Raw Dark Tea
    XU Wei, JIANG Yihe, WU Dan, ZHAO Renliang, ZHU Qi
    Journal of Tea Science. 2017, 37(5):  483-492. 
    Abstract ( 77 )   PDF (940KB) ( 33 )  
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    In order to understand the feature of microbe in the mildew dark tea under high humidity conditions, Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing was performed to study fungi diversity by artificial culture of certain fungi. The influence of the OTU (Operational Taxonomic Unit) threshold on the bioinformatic analysis results of fungal diversity was also discussed. The results showed that the mildew dark tea fungus under high humidity conditions were mainly classified into 2 phylum (Ascomycota, Basidiomycota) and 6 genera (Aspergillus, Galactomyces, Ogataea, Debaryomyces, Pichia and Cryptococcus), with the highest abundance value of Aspergillus (>98%). The different OTU thresholds resulted in the difference in the taxonomic status, diversity index and community structure in the same sample. The Shannon diversity index of OTU under the 0.97 was 0.15-0.43, and the Shannon diversity index under 0.99 was 0.28-0.58. Under high moisture conditions aspergillus was the major fungi causing dark tea mildew in storage.
    Molecular Cloning, Subcellular Localization and Expression Analysis of CsPT4 Gene in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)
    XIN Huahong, WANG Weidong, WANG Mingle, MA Qingping, GAN Yudi, LI Xinghui
    Journal of Tea Science. 2017, 37(5):  493-502. 
    Abstract ( 110 )   PDF (1542KB) ( 150 )  
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    Phosphate transporter proteins (Phts) play important roles in plant phosphorus (P) absorption and transportation. Furthermore, Phts affect usage efficiency of the tea garden fertilizer. A full-length phosphate transporter complementary DNA (cDNA) CsPht1:4 (also named CsPT4) was cloned from tea plant (Camellia sinensis cv. Longjingchangye) by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques. CsPT4 had an open reading frame of 1β620βbp (GenBank accession No. KY132100) and encoded a 539 amino acid polypeptide. Bioinformatic analyses showed that CsPT4 had a molecular weight of 59.12βkD and a theoretical isoelectric point of 8.51. The protein secondary structure was a “6+Hydrophilic+6” configuration,which was consistent with the typical structure of Phts. Subcellular localization assay showed that the CsPT4 protein localized in plasma membrane, which was consistent with the predicted results of Softberry. The expression pattern of CsPT4 gene was tissue-specific. Its transcript abundance in old leaves was much higher than that in tender leaves, stems and roots. The lowest expression of CsPT4 gene was identified in roots. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the gene expression trends in root and leaves were different under low-P and P-deficiency treatments. Under low-P treatment, its induced level was first increased and then decreased, with higher expression in roots than leaves. While under P-deficiency treatment, the induced expression of CsPT4 gene kept stable, with its peak in roots and leaves at 72 h and 48 h, respectively. The results of this study provided a reference for the study of the molecular mechanism of tea adaptation to low P.
    Production of Bioactive Indole Alkaloids through Fermention of Eurotium cristatum from Fuzhuan Tea
    LIU Liping, TANG Yuwei, WANG Ruoxian, LI Zhibing, LIU Zhonghua, LIU Shuoqian
    Journal of Tea Science. 2017, 37(5):  503-512. 
    Abstract ( 122 )   PDF (1287KB) ( 171 )  
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    Eurotium cristatum is the dominant fungi in Funzhuan tea, which produces indole alkaloids that have many important bioactivities, such as antibacterial, antiallergic, antiradiation, antiultraviolet, antitumor effects. In order to improve the production of indole alkaloids by E. cristatum, we investigated the factors affecting reproduction, growth and the fermentation of E. cristatum. The fermentation products of E. cristatum were analyzed using thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrum. The results showed that E. cristatum reproduced fast on Czapek-Dox solid medium with a large number of mature spores in 8 days, and the optimal growth conditions were obtained as following: pH 6.0, culture temperature 30℃, rotating speed 200 r·min-1 and culture time 6 days. Moreover, fresh tea leaf powder, fresh tea leaf extract, Funzhuan tea powder, Funzhuan tea extract and tryptophan obviously improved the biosynthesis of indole alkaloids, with the best enhancing effect of tryptophan. Furthermore, at least 10 compounds were observed in thin-layer chromatography, most of which were identified to be indole alkaloids by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrum, with a yield up to 2.45 g·L-1. The present work provided technical support for utilization of E. cristatum in Fuzhuan tea.
    Study on the Safety of Pu-erh Tea Contaminated by Exogenous Aspergillus flavus
    LI Yali, XING Qianqian, TU Qing, ZHOU Hongjie
    Journal of Tea Science. 2017, 37(5):  513-522. 
    Abstract ( 109 )   PDF (1179KB) ( 75 )  
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    Yunnan Pu-erh tea was used as experimental material. Aspergillus flavus strains YM31882 were inoculated into Pu-erh tea, and the Pu-erh tea un-inoculated by strains was taken as the control. The storage conditions were (1) temperature 30℃, humidity 90%. (2) temperature 30℃, humidity 90% and (3) room temperature. The tea samples were storage for 7, 14, 21and 28 days respectively and then collected for yellow aspergillus toxin detection by LC-MS / MS. The results showed that none of the aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 was detected in tested samples. indicating that storage process could avoid Aspergillus flavus contamination in Pu-erh tea, In summary, Pu-erh tea is safe to drink in this field.
    Effects of Tea Polyphenols on Quality and Microorganisms of Pseudosciaena crocea during Iced Storage
    LEI Liping, ZHU Yuehua, ZHANG Jian, YANG Wenge, LI Puyou, LIU Yanjie, QIAN Yunxia
    Journal of Tea Science. 2017, 37(5):  523-531. 
    Abstract ( 65 )   PDF (1048KB) ( 80 )  
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    The quality and microorganisms changes of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) during iced storage were studied using tea polyphenols as bio-preservatives in this study. The sensory evaluation values, total bacteria, pH value, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N value) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA value) were measured to evaluate the quality change of Pseudosciaena crocea. The 16βS rDNA clone library and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were used to analyze the spoilage bacteria under iced storage condition. The results indicated that the total bacteria, pH value, TVB-N value and TBA value of the dipping group were significantly lower than those of the control group, and the sensory evaluation values of large yellow croaker were better than that of the control group. The shelf-life of dipping group extended from 12-16 days to 20-24 days at iced storage. So the dipping group had better preservation effect. The bacterial species of fresh pseudosciaen a crocea were abundant, reaching 15 types. And the species of bacteria in the spoilage fish decreased obviously. At the end of spoilage period, there were 8 species of bacteria in the control group (20βd), among which Pseudomonas and Shewanella were the dominant species, occupying 43.7% and 39.6% of the total microorganisms. And bacterial species in tea polyphenol dipping sample (24βd) were less than the control group. The dominant spoilage bacteria of dipping samples was Pseudomonas, taking a percentage of 76.8%.
    Integration and Interactive Development of Tea Tourism: Model Construction and Effect Measurement——Based on the Empirical Study in Zhejiang Province
    YI Kaigang, LI Jieyu
    Journal of Tea Science. 2017, 37(5):  532-540. 
    Abstract ( 93 )   PDF (314KB) ( 65 )  
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    The integration and interactive development of tea industry and tourism is the inherent need of both industries, which is of great significance to break the bottleneck of the profit growth of tea industry. This study took Zhejiang Province as an example, and constructed mechanism models based on the industrial integration theory and coupling theory. The mechanism models were tea tour integration motivation, path integration, as well as integration benefits. Coupling function model was given in this study to investigate on the integration and interactive development of tea tourism in Zhejiang Province. It turned out that tea and tourism industries in Zhejiang province was in the phase of growth, while the development of tourism industry was slower than that of tea industry, and tea industry played a leading role. Obviously, the integration of tea industry and tourism industry was evolving from a disordered state to a coupling coordination state. Finally, countermeasures as Product Innovation, Strengthen Propaganda, Perfect Infrastructure, and Foster Integration of Brand were suggested to further promote the integration of tea and tourism industry in Zhejiang Province, to solve the problems in developing tea industry, and to accomplish the transformation and upgrading of tea industry.