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Basic Information about the Journal
Journal title: Journal of Tea science
Inscription of journal title: ZHU De
Responsible Institution: China Association for Science and Technology
Sponsored by: China Tea Science Society
Tea Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
Editing and Publishing: Editorial Office, Journal of Tea science
Start time: 1964
No. of issues: Bi-monthly
Two-Dimensional Code of Tea Science Website
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Table of Content

    15 August 2015 Volume 35 Issue 4
      
    Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of Hemolin Gene in Tea Geometrid (Ectropis obliqua)
    YU Yugeng, YUAN Zhijun, YIN Kunshan, FU Jianyu, XIAO Qiang
    Journal of Tea Science. 2015, 35(4):  307-315.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.04.001
    Abstract ( 78 )   PDF (807KB) ( 41 )  
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    Hemolin, a unique immune protein, belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily of Lepidoptera insects. A full length cDNA sequence of hemolin gene was cloned by RACE-PCR from tea geometrid (Ectropis obliqua Prout), which was named as EoHML (GenBank Accession No. KM885983). The results of bioinformatics characterization showed that the full length cDNA of EoHML was 1β772βbp, which contained an intact CDS of 1β239βbp and encoded 412 amino acid residues with a putative molecular mass of 45.8βkD and an isoionic point of 8.297. The deduced amino acid sequence demonstrates it belongs to a typical secretory protein that contains 4 Ig functional conservative areas and 2 N-glycosylation sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that EoHML share the far genetic distance with published hemolin gene and the highest similarity with that of Manduca sexta was only 53%. The results of quantitative real-time PCR analysis further revealed a significant up-regulated expression about 36.5 times in the larvae infected E.obliqua Nucleopolyhedrovirus (EoNPV) than the controls. The study indicated that the EoHML gene may participate in the immune response to EoNPV in tea geometrid.
    Effect of Various Field Management Models on Temporal and Spatial Patterns and Diversity of Arthropod Community in Four Types of Tea Plantations
    PAN Cheng, HAN Shanjie, HAN Baoyu
    Journal of Tea Science. 2015, 35(4):  316-322.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.04.002
    Abstract ( 96 )   PDF (680KB) ( 34 )  
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    The arthropod communities were investigated by sampling at an interval of two months for one year in four types of tea plantations: organic tea plantation (OTP), tri-row dense tea tree plantation (TRDTTP), and high yield tea plantation (HYTP) Every types of tea garden planted the Anjibaicha tea cultivar with the same tea plant age, as well as the tea cultivar garden (TCG) growing with Anjibaicha, Longjin 43 and other over forty cultivars. The results showed that: ① Species richness and abundance of natural enemies decreased progressively from TCG, OTP, TRDTTP to HYTP, whilst the total abundance in TRDTTP was the highest among the four types of tea plantations. ② For the vertical stratification of arthropod communities, higher species richness and abundance of the natural enemies in HYTP, TRDTTP and TCG existed at the middle layer of tea plant than in the other layers, whereas the highest species richness and abundance occurred at the upper layer in OTP, the highest species richness of various pests occurred at the middle layer of tea plant in HYTP, TRDTTP and TCG, and at the upper layer in OTP; the highest abundance (overall individual numbers) of pests existed at the lower layer in HYTP and TRDTTP, and at the middle layer in TCG and OTP. ③ Horizontally, the sum of species richness and the sum of abundance of the natural enemies toward the eastward and the westward were more than those toward the southward and the northward in the all plantations except TCG. ④ The species richness and the abundance of pests existed in the inner layers of tea canopies were slightly higher than those in the outer layers for all four tea plantations, whilst the species richness and the abundance of the natural enemies occurred in outer layers were slightly more than those in the inner layers. ⑤ A relatively low species richness was recorded from December to February (overwinter period), while higher species richnesses were detected in April, June and October. ⑥ The diversity indices of arthropod communities decreased progressively from OTP, TCG, HYTP to TRDTTP. It is suggested that the different field management models (different types of tea plantations) might lead to the significant differences in the temporal and spatial patterns (structures) and the diversity of the arthropod communities in tea plantations.
    Growth and Reproduction of Ectropis obliqua Fed on Artificial Diet
    LIU Qin, XU Jian, LI Chuanming, HAN Guangjie, SUN Jun, QI Jianhang, WANG Chunjun, LIU Gengsheng
    Journal of Tea Science. 2015, 35(4):  323-328.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.04.003
    Abstract ( 88 )   PDF (596KB) ( 13 )  
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    :The growth and reproduction of tea geometrid, Ectropis obliqua Prout, fed on an artificial diet were studied. The results showed that the larvae grew and developed normally fed on the artificial diet. Larvae survival rate, eclosion rate and hatchability were 90.50%, 86.29% and 91.03% respectively. There were no significant difference comparing with that reared with tea tender shoots. The pupation rate of larvae those fed with the artificial diets was 85.52%, lower than those fed with tea tender shoots. Duration of larvae and generation fed with artificial diet were 20βd and 39.62βd, the duration of larvae was postponed 1.44βd and 2.41βd compared with the control. Numbers of eggs oviposited by female adults fed with artificial diets were 286.9 per female, 14.82 percent higher than those fed on tea teder shoots. Survival rate curve of larvae showed an increasing function of mortality-age, no significant difference from the curve of larvae fed on tea tender shoots. The intrinsic rate of increase (Rm) and finite rate by increase (λ) in population were 0.113 and 1.119. The larvae mean generation time (T) and double time (DT) in population fed with artificial diets prolonged 2.43 d and 0.265 d in comparison with the population fed with tea shoots. Population trend index (I) was 87.209, indicated that the population of E. obliqua fed on artificial diet showed the ascending trend.
    Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Relationship of Qimen Population of Tea Plants Based on EST-SSR Markers
    LI Saijun, LEI Yu, DUAN Jihua, LUO Yi, HUANG Feiyi, DONG Lijuan
    Journal of Tea Science. 2015, 35(4):  329-335.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.04.004
    Abstract ( 100 )   PDF (698KB) ( 44 )  
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    The 24 pairs of EST-SSR primers were used to analyze the genetic polymorphism and genetic relationship of 66 Qimen plants and ‘Anhui 1’. It was showed that the level of genetic diversity within Qimen population was high, with 69 alleles amplified by the 24 EST-SSR primers averaged 2.88. The polymorphism information content (PIC) was ranged from 0.18 to 0.85, with a mean 0.47. The observed heterozygosity (Ho) varied from 0.09 to 0.96, and the expected heterozygosity (He) varied from 0.23 to 0.76, with average of 0.41 and 0.50, respectively. The Shannon index of the Qimen plant population ranged from 0.39 to 1.50, with an average of 0.89. The 66 Qimen plant individuals and cultivar ‘Anhui 1’ were classified into 6 groups based on the UPGMA method with the similarity coefficient at 0.50, and the group I contained 44 Qimen individuals and ‘Anhui 1’, accounted for the 67.16% of the total, which is considered to be core group of the Qimen population.
    Gene Cloning and Expression Analysis of Actin in Tea Plant Root
    LI Yuanhua, LU Jianliang, FAN Fangyuan, SHI Yutao
    Journal of Tea Science. 2015, 35(4):  336-346.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.04.005
    Abstract ( 85 )   PDF (803KB) ( 29 )  
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    By using SSH, we analyzed differences in gene expression of root from Fuding white tea infected by VA mycorrhiza and obtained diversity sequences. The sequence alighment showed that the down-regulated expression sequence possibly contained 10 unknown genes and the up-regulated expression sequence possible contained 5 known genes. The Actin genic full-length sequence was obtained by using RACE. The length of Actin gene was 1β606βbp (GenBank Accession No. KJ946252), with 1β131βbp ORF (1st-1β131st), the sequence encoded 377 amino acid. Bioinformatics indicated that the Actin protein’s molecular weight was about 30.69 kD, IEP was 5.27, located in subcellular fraction area like cell nucleus. The study also showed Actin expressed no obvious difference in different cultivars and it responded weak to non-biological stress.
    Genetic Diversity of Wild Tea Plant in Different Altitude in Qianjiazhai
    HUANG Xiaoxia, TANG Tan, JIANG Yonglei, FENG Chengcheng, CHENG Xiaomao
    Journal of Tea Science. 2015, 35(4):  347-353.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.04.006
    Abstract ( 134 )   PDF (559KB) ( 47 )  
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    5 pairs of EST-SSR markers derived by the authors were used to study genetic diversity and genetic structure of 7 wild tea populations at different altitudes in Qianjiazhai. At the species level, Shannon information index (I) and Nei’s gene diversity (He) were 1.33 and 0.66, respectively, indicating this species has high genetic diversity at species level. Along altitudinal gradients, the genetic diversity among population of wild tea was different and showed low-high-low distribution. The genetic diversity of population at altitude 2β100βm was much higher than others populations. AMOVA analysis showed that only 16.32% of the total genetic variation occurred among populations, whereas 83.68% of the variance was within populations, which was in line with the coefficient of genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.12). And the gene flow Nm was 1.84, indicating the genetic diversity between wild ancient population in was characterized by the moderate level. The genetic characteristics of wild tea and the habitat heterogeneity in different elevation are the main reason of existing genetic pattern.
    Effects of Controlled-release Nitrogen Fertilizer on Tea Yield, Quality, Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Economic Benefit
    MA Lifeng, SU Kongwu, LI Jinlan, SHI Yuanzhi, YI Xiaoyun, FANG Li, RUAN Jianyun
    Journal of Tea Science. 2015, 35(4):  354-362.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.04.007
    Abstract ( 82 )   PDF (709KB) ( 11 )  
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    The study was carried out to investigate the effects of different N fertilization input on soil inorganic N, tea yield, quality components, N use efficiency, uptake of N, P, and other mineral nutrients and financial economic benefit. Results indicated that soil inorganic N concentration varied less and relatively more stable in controlled-release N fertilizer (CRF) or CRF blending with conventional N fertilizer (CF) than CF, but there was no statistical difference (P>0.05) among three N treatments. In comparison with CF, tea yields in CRF and CRF blending with CF were increased by 7.5% and 15.2%, respectively. The tea quality components, including free amino acid, tea polyphenol and the TP/AA ratio showed no statistical difference (P>0.05) among three N treatments. CRF or CRF blending with CF promoted tea plants to uptake N, P and other mineral nutrients, and improved N use efficiency in young shoots. Comparing CF and CRF, the NUE increment rates in CRF blending with CF were 5.38% and 2.39%, respectively. The PNE in CRF blending with CF was 1.16 kg·kg-1 higher than CF, and 0.57 kg·kg-1 higher than CRF. Compared to CF, the total net income increment in CRF and CRF blending with CF were 9.3 thousand yuan RMB and 20.1 thousand yuan RMB per hectare, respectively. It was concluded that CRF blending with CF has significant promoting effect on tea yields and economic benefit.
    The Temperature Design of Tea Carding Machine Based on Fuzzy Controler
    WANG Xiaoyong, LI Bing, ZENG Chen, LI Shangqing, XU Chenggang
    Journal of Tea Science. 2015, 35(4):  363-369.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.04.009
    Abstract ( 138 )   PDF (631KB) ( 31 )  
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    In order to prevent the color yellow, darker or burnt phenomenon generated in the tea carding, it is needed for effective control of the temperature during the tea carding, to improve the processing quality of tea. The combination of fuzzy algorithm and temperature control of the carding process, the Matlab was aplied in design and simulate, the carding experiment. Results showed that fuzzy temperature control on the main and auxiliary heating component with high precision, and small overshoot, the broken rate of tea is 6% (the traditional way of broken rate is 11.8%, fuzzy temperature control on single heating element broken rate of tea was 8.3%), temperature of 90℃, score is 932.5 points, is better than the traditional control method and the single heating parts, this study provides the reference for improving tea carding quality.
    Design and Experimental Investigation of Congou Black Tea Visual Aerobic Fermentation Machine
    DONG Chunwang, YE Yang, JIANG Yongwen, ZHU Hongkai, HE Huafeng, GUI Anhui, GAO Mingzhu, HUANG Fan
    Journal of Tea Science. 2015, 35(4):  370-376.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.04.010
    Abstract ( 119 )   PDF (681KB) ( 24 )  
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    In order to solve the existing problems caused by loose combination of black tea fermentation equipment and fermentation process, including instable fermentation temperature and humidity, difficult mixing, oxygen deficit and non-uniform quality, a congou black tea visual aerobic fermentation machine was designed. Our study described the overall design scheme of the machine and its key parts such as the fermentation tube, mixing and heat tunnel device, and then determines the key parameters. By conducting a fermentation performance test, it was found that the fermentation processing achieved the optimal effect with more than 90% of humidity at 30℃ fermentation temperature for 3.5βh. Compared with traditional fermentation, the aroma, taste and more have been significantly improved and sensory quality score was 2.1 points higher. The machine is simple in structure and convenient to operate. It can well meet the fermentation requirements of high-quality black tea and possessed a good application prospects.
    Analysis of the Bitter and Astringent Taste of Baked Green Tea and Their Chemical Contributors
    ZHANG Yingna, CHEN Gensheng, LIU Yang, XU Yongquan, WANG Fang, CHEN Jianxin, YIN Junfeng
    Journal of Tea Science. 2015, 35(4):  377-383.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.04.011
    Abstract ( 106 )   PDF (579KB) ( 51 )  
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    The paper discussed the quantitative analysis of the bitter and astringent taste of the baked green tea and the main chemical component contributors. Baked green teas made of fresh tea leaves with different tenderness were used as the raw material to analyze the taste attributes (including bitterness, astringency, umami, and mellowness) and contents of quality components by quantitative sensory evaluation and chemical analysis, and synchronously establish the correlation between them. The results showed that, with the decrease of tea leaves tenderness, the bitter, astringent and umami taste of the tea infusions decreased as well as the total taste quality. Through analyzing the quality components and their taste contributions, it was found that the main contributors for the bitterness of the baked green tea were EGCG and caffeine, and for the astringency were catechins and flavonoid glycosides. EGCG was the main catechin component for astringent taste, and EGC and ECG also had significant contribution. Que-rut and Que-gala were the main flavonoid glycosides, other glycosides including Myr-gala, Que-glu, Vit-rha, Kae-gala, Kae-rut, Kae-glu also had significant contribution for astringent taste. The analysis of the Dot values showed that free amino acids had no significant contribution to the umami tatste. This research preliminarily illuminated the main chemical contributors for the bitter and astringent taste of the baked green tea and provided theory basis for the tea-quality improvement and taste-chemistry study.
    Effect of Black Tea on Regulating Serum Lipid in Mice Fed with a High-fat Diet
    CHEN Jinhua, TAN Bin, GONG Yushun, HUANG Jian′an, LIU Zhonghua
    Journal of Tea Science. 2015, 35(4):  384-396.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.04.012
    Abstract ( 110 )   PDF (1872KB) ( 234 )  
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    :The lipid metabolic disturbance model method was used to investigate the regulatory effects of Black Tea (BT) at different dosages (5 times, 10 times and 20 times of adult daily consumption) on serum lipid levels in hyperlipoidemia mice. In present study, blood lipid levels, body weight, and related enzymes of liver and serum were measured, and the histopathological changes in tissues of liver were also examined. It was found that the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), liver malondialdehyde (MDA) and liver index were significantly lower (P<0.01) in BT-treated mice compared with the high hyperlipoidemia model mice, while serum levels of apoA1, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hepatictriglyceridelipase (HL) and total lipase, and liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) actives and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) actives were significantly higher after treatment with BT (P<0.01). Additionally, serum levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was slightly increased. Moreoverr, body weight was reduced, and the liver lesions were attenuated to some degree in BT-treated mice. The results suggested that BT showed a positive effect on regulating the serum lipid and reducing the liver injury induced by high fat diet.
    Comparative Study of Tea Consumption between Urban and Rural Residents in China
    GUAN Xi, YANG Jiangfan
    Journal of Tea Science. 2015, 35(4):  397-403.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2015.04.014
    Abstract ( 121 )   PDF (668KB) ( 74 )  
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    Based on the data from China Health and Nutrition Survey in 2011, the paper used double hurdle model to analyze the tea consumption between urban and rural residents, from the perspective of participation of tea consumption and how much to consumes. The results showed there were about 0.261 billion and 0.167 billion tea consumers in urban and rural regions, the corresponding quantities of tea consumed were 3.19 cup and 2.81 cup per day, 46.5% of urban residents and 33% of rural residents drink tea, income elastic of demand for urban and rural residents were 11.19% and 7.9% respectively. The participation of tea consumption of urban residents was influenced by age and income, while the rural residents were affected by income and family size on the participation of tea consumption, male in urban area consumed more cups of tea than female. Age, income, family size and education all showed positive and significant effect on the tea consumption. The corresponding policies to promote tea consumption in China included considering the applicability of policy, speeding up to increase the income of urban and rural residents, finding the niche market.