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Welcome to Journal of Tea Science,Today is
Basic Information about the Journal
Journal title: Journal of Tea science
Inscription of journal title: ZHU De
Responsible Institution: China Association for Science and Technology
Sponsored by: China Tea Science Society
Tea Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
Editing and Publishing: Editorial Office, Journal of Tea science
Start time: 1964
No. of issues: Bi-monthly
Two-Dimensional Code of Tea Science Website
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Table of Content

    15 February 2019 Volume 39 Issue 1
      
    Recent Advances on Tea Flowering Mechanisms
    LIU Ying, HAO Xinyuan, ZHENG Mengxia, WANG Xinchao, XIAO Bin, YANG Yajun
    Journal of Tea Science. 2019, 39(1):  1-10.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.01.001
    Abstract ( 134 )   PDF (747KB) ( 92 )  
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    Flowering is an important sign of changing to reproductive growth for plants. Therefore, the formation of flower organs is important for the transmission of genetic information. Tea plant is a valuable cash crop species originated from the southwestern China, whose active blossoms last a long period. In production, the consumption of large amount of nutrients by exuberant reproductive growth seriously affects the yield and quality of tea. On the contrary, in cross breeding, tea plant has the features of self-incompatibility and low seed fertility. In order to gain insight into the timetable of floral bud differentiation and development, influencing factors and molecular regulation mechanisms, it is necessary to disclose the flowering mechanism of tea plant to provide a theoretical basis for fine breeding, high-efficiency production and improving breeding efficiency. Currently, researches on tea plant flowering had made some progresses, but not deep and systematic enough. This paper introduced recent advances in flowering regulation in tea plant and other plant species, flower bud differentiation and floral development. Useful thoughts for current problems and future research directions in tea plant flowering were also provided.
    Effects of Rooting Agent on Endogenous Hormone Levels and Propagation of Softwood Cuttings of Tea Plant
    REN Hengze, ZHANG Lixia, XIANG Qinzeng, HAN Xiaoyang, YU Qian, CAI Lu
    Journal of Tea Science. 2019, 39(1):  11-12.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.01.002
    Abstract ( 173 )   PDF (368KB) ( 61 )  
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    In order to explore the appropriate treatment of rooting agent and endogenous hormone changes in softwood cuttings of three-year-old Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze cv. Taicha12 with different tenderness, twigs were used to investigate the contents of IAA, ZR, GA3 and ABA in different tissues by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). And the effects of soaking duration of rooting agent on the endogenous hormone contents in the basal stem and the rapid propagation of tea cuttings were also studied. The results showed that in one bud and one leaf to one bud and two leaves (BL1), semi-functional leaf (L2), the first functional leaf (L3) and itslinked stem (S1), the second functional leaf (L4) and its linked stem (S2), the third functional leaf (L5) and its linked stem (S3), the stem near the fourth functional leaf (S4), the highest contents of IAA and ABA were observed in the second functional leaves. The highest content of ZR was found in the third functional leaves. And the content of GA3 increased with the increase of leaf maturity. The contents of IAA in S1-S3 were significantly higher than that in S4. However, the content of ABA in S1 was significantly higher than those in S2-S4. After ABT-1 rooting agent treatment (100 mg·L-1), the content of IAA in the basal stem significantly increased and the IAA/ABA and (IAA+ZR+GA3)/ABA values increased to about 1.0, which facilitated the formation of roots. During one hour treatment of the rooting agent, the IAA content rapidly increased and the IAA/ABA and (IAA+ZR+GA3)/ABA values also increased to about 1.0 in the cuttings with one or two functional leaves and apical shoot (F1-1, F2-1). For other cuttings, the above three indicators reached the maximum value after treatment for 4 h. The best treatment duration for different cuttings were different, with F1-1, F2-1 for 0.5-1 h, the cuttings with one functional leaf and excised apical shoot (F1-2) for 4 h, F2-2, F3-1 and F3-2 for 3-4 h. During transplantation, the maximum values of the root vigor, root number and the increase of basal stem diameter occurred in rooting agent treatment for 0-2 h. Other roots and shoots of tea cuttings showed the best growth after 4 h treatment.
    Research Progress of The Preventing Effects of Tea on Aging and Aged-related Pathologies
    DAI Shen, LU Yan, YU Penghui, GONG Yushun, LIU Zhonghua
    Journal of Tea Science. 2019, 39(1):  23-33.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.01.003
    Abstract ( 157 )   PDF (684KB) ( 110 )  
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    In this paper, the anti-aging effects of tea in model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila flies and mice were reviewed. The main functional components (tea polyphenols, theanine and caffeine) were especially emphasized. The beneficial functions of tea in preventing age-related diseases were summarized. Furthermore, the latest research on its mechanism of regulating the nutrient-sensing signaling networks was expounded. Finally, the future research direction was briefly discussed.
    Effects of Black Tea and Its Flower Brick Tea on Lowering Uric Acid in Hyperuricemic Mice
    YUAN Dongyin, XIAO Wenjun, PENG Yingqi, LIN Ling, ZHOU Yang, TAN Chunbo, TAN Hongbo, GONG Zhihua
    Journal of Tea Science. 2019, 39(1):  34-42.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.01.004
    Abstract ( 145 )   PDF (724KB) ( 137 )  
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    Based on the successful establishment of hyperuricemia model mice by potassium oxonate, black tea and its flower black brick tea made from the same fresh leaves were used to investigate their effects on lowering uric acid in hyperuricemic mice. In the study, ninety KM male mice were randomly divided into nine groups (10 mices for each group) including the normal group, the model group, the black tea-treated groups (high dose, middle dose, low dose) and the allopurinol group. Then all mice were orally administrated for fourteen days. The results showed that compared with the model group, the levels of weight , kidney index and serum uric acid in tea-treated groups were significantly decreased (P<0.05). Moreover, the high-dose group of flower black brick tea had extremely significant reduction in blood uric acid (P<0.01). Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine also decreased significantly in tea-treated groups (P<0.01). The levels of urine urea nitrogen in the middle and high dose groups increased significantly (P<0.01), and the levels of urine uric acid in the high dose groups increased significantly (P<0.01). The levels of urine creatinine were significantly increased in the tea-treated groups (P<0.01) except the low-dose black tea group which showed an opposite trend (P<0.05). The middle dose group of flower black brick tea significantly decreased the activities of xanthine oxidase and adenosine deaminase (P<0.05). The middle dose group of black tea and both high dose groups all highly significantly reduced the activities of these two enzymes (P<0.01). These results showed that black tea and flower black brick tea could reduce the production of uric acid, and the high-dose flower black brick tea group was superior to black tea in lowering blood uric acid and increasing uric acid, urine urea nitrogen, and urine creatinine. The mechanism remains to be further explored.
    Effects of L-theanine on Intestinal Morphology and Free Amino Acids in Mice
    PENG Yingqi, XIAO Wenjun, ZHANG Sheng, YUAN Dongyin, LIN Ling, ZHOU Yang, GONG Zhihua
    Journal of Tea Science. 2019, 39(1):  43-54.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.01.005
    Abstract ( 147 )   PDF (996KB) ( 50 )  
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    Fifty KM male mice were randomly divided into the normal, glutamine and low, medium and high dose L- theanine treatment groups with 10 mice/group. The mice were continuously fed for 28 days to investigate the effects of L-theanine on intestinal morphology and free amino acids. The results show that compared with the normal group, the intestinal villus height increased with the increase of L-theanine dosage. The duodenal villus height in each L-theanine groups, the jejunum villus height and villus height/crypt depth in the middle and high dose L-theanine groups were significantly increased (P<0.05). The levels of free amino acids in serum, urea nitrogen in high- and
    The Effect and Mechanism of (+)-Catechins on Relieving Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension in Rats
    YAN Junjie, CHEN Fangzheng, CHEN Luowei, WANG Heng, HUANG Jingwen, JIN Lufei, XU Yuhui, YUAN Linbo
    Journal of Tea Science. 2019, 39(1):  55-62.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.01.006
    Abstract ( 112 )   PDF (989KB) ( 38 )  
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    To study the effects and mechanism of (+)-catechins ((+)-C) on hypoxia pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in rats, twenty seven SD male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups with equalnumber (control group, hypoxia group and hypoxia+(+)-C group). Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were measured to indicate the hemodynamic changes in vivo. After executing the rats, the right ventricle hypertrophy index (RVHI) and the vascular wall thickness of outer circumference ratio (WT%) were calculated. The expression of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and NO in pulmonary artery endothelial cells was analyzed by WB and NO kit respectively. Cellular viability of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell was determined by CCK-8 assay. The expression of calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) and total intracellular Ca2+ were analyzed by WB and fluorescent probe. The results showed that (+)-C could decrease the pulmonary arterial pressure induced by hypoxia (n=9, P<0.05). Increase eNOS in pulmonary endothelial cells (n=3, P<0.05) and increase NO synthesis in pulmonary endothelial cells (n=5, P<0.05). The expression of CaSR in smooth muscle cells induced by hypoxia was inhibited (n=3, P<0.05), while the calcium concentration was induced by (+)-C (n=27, P<0.05). Vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation was inhibited by (+)-C (n=30, P<0.05). In conclusion, (+)-C can alleviate hypoxia induced PAH by inhibiting pulmonary vasoconstriction and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, providing a new approach for the treatment of PAH.
    The Effect of Technological Factors on Yellow Tea Quality and Taste-chemical Constituents in the Yellowing Process
    FAN Fangyuan, YANG Xiaolei, GONG Shuying, GUO Haowei, LI Chunlin, QIAN Hong, HU Jianping
    Journal of Tea Science. 2019, 39(1):  63-73.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.01.007
    Abstract ( 137 )   PDF (1448KB) ( 88 )  
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    The yellowing process is the unique step during yellow tea process, which causes the tea to change bright yellow in tea-infusion and tea-leaf colors. This study focused on the effects of leaf-temperature, moisture content, relative humidity and ventilation frequency on the formation of yellow-tea using the uniform raw fresh-leaves. In addition, the correlations of yellowing-process technological-factors and chemical constituents were analyzed. The results show that the ventilation frequency and relative humidity were the key factors for yellowing-process and quality improvement using the uniform raw fresh-leaves and under the traditional temperature and moisture content. The yellow tea quality would be improved by increasing ventilation frequency and relative humidity under traditional yellowing temperature and moisture content. The principal component analysis indicates that ventilation frequency and relative humidity had high correlation with many taste-constituents, including catechins CG, ECG, GCG, flavones Myr-rha, Que-gal, and amino acids theanine, Ser, Gln, Arg, His, GABA. The results indicates that yellowing-process factors influenced the mellow-, thick- and sweet-tastes of yellow tea by affecting the taste-chemical constituents. As a result, the following yellowing process parameters were suitable for preparation of premium yellow tea with the taste of mellow, thick and sweet: leaf temperature of (45±2)℃, leaf moisture content of (37±3)%, relative humidity of (80±5)%, and ventilation frequency of once per 10 min.
    Optimal Design of Double-pan Roasting MachineBased on Ant Colony Algorithm
    LI Bing, LI Weining, SONG Yangyang, SUN Changying
    Journal of Tea Science. 2019, 39(1):  74-80.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.01.008
    Abstract ( 94 )   PDF (1257KB) ( 42 )  
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    In order to improve the smoothness of double-pan roasting machine and reduce the noise, the key parameters of the crank rocker mechanism of the double-pan roasting machine were optimized. The mathematical model designed for the double-pan roasting machine was set up and optimized. The objective function was to maximize the minimum transmission angle. The optimized design program of double-pan roasting machine based on ant colony algorithm was compiled with Matlab, and the optimization calculation and verification experiment were carried out with this program. The optimization results show that the lengths of crank, connecting rod, rocker and rack rod were 200βmm, 333βmm, 310βmm and 320βmm, respectively. The minimum transmission angle was increased from 14.6 to 21.1, and the noise was reduced from 75βdB to 70βdB, the forming rate of gunpowder tea increased from 84% to 92%. The rate of broken tea decreased from 8.6% to 7.2%. This research provided a theoretical basis for improving the performance of double-pan roasting machine.
    Research Progress and Prospect on Computer Vision Technology Application in Tea Production
    HUANG Fan, LIU Fei, WANG Yun, LUO Fan
    Journal of Tea Science. 2019, 39(1):  81-87.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.01.009
    Abstract ( 186 )   PDF (578KB) ( 187 )  
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    As a non-destructive, real-time, fast, objective and economical detection method, computer vision technology had been gradually applied in tea production including cultivation, plant protection processing, evaluation and other fields, which had made great progress. This paper briefly described the principle, current status and development prospects of computer vision technology in tea industry, which provided a reference for further application of computer vision technology in tea industry.
    Fungal Mixed Fermentation for The Production of Lipase and Its Activity Analysis in Galloylated Catechin Hydrolysis
    FANG Hongfeng, ZHANG Huixia, WANG Guohong, YANG Minhe
    Journal of Tea Science. 2019, 39(1):  88-97.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.01.010
    Abstract ( 164 )   PDF (1056KB) ( 46 )  
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    In the process of dark tea manufacture, microbial fermentation leads to the biotransformation of catechins and the decrease of the total polyphenol contents. Up to date, the metabolic pathways and regulatory mechanisms of this transformation process were still unclear. The green tea was fermented by mixed fermentation of Aspergillus cristatum strain PE-1 and A. niger strain PE-4. Lipase activity was detected by a differential culture medium plate test and enzyme activity assay. The results indicate that lipase activities in mixed strain fermentation were stronger than that of signal strain fermentation. In mixed fermentation, a lipase protein with a molecular weight of approximately 37βkDa was obtained by protein separation and purification, which had different biotransformation efficiency for EGCG and ECG. HPLC results show that the lipase had a better substrate selectivity for EGCG than that for ECG. The efficiency of EGCG hydrolysis and the yield of EGC were 94.46% and 63.33%. While the efficiency of ECG hydrolysis and the yield of EC were 15.45% and 4.15%. The biotransformation of EGCG and ECG by lipase would promote the study of the catechin metabolism and the production of monomeric catechins.
    Morphological Characteristics and Histological Structure of the Reproductive Organs in Female Adults of Ectropis grisescens Warren (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)
    ZHANG Jiaxia, SUN Qinyu, GE Chaomei, YE Tao, ZHANG Ran, DING Yong
    Journal of Tea Science. 2019, 39(1):  98-104.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.01.011
    Abstract ( 118 )   PDF (1340KB) ( 34 )  
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    The tea geometrid, Ectropis grisescens Warren is a major defoliator of tea trees. The morphology and histology of internal and external reproductive organs of the female adult insects were described here using both anatomical sections and microscopic observation. The female adult reproductive organs were comprised of a pair of ovaries, two lateral oviducts, one common oviduct, spermatheca, accessory gland, oviporus, corpus bursae and associated parts, ductus seminalis, apophyses and papillae anales. Each ovary contained eight symmetrical ovarioles. The corpus bursae was a typical bag structure and possessed a heart-shaped signum which covered 16 symmetrical spines on the surface of both sides. The apophyses posteriores was slender and shovel-like. Nurse cells and oocytes were arranged alternately in polytrophic ovarioles. The ovipositor possessed a well-developed gonad. This study was the first research on the genital structure of female adult of E. grisescens Warren. The results provided guidance for the study of ovarian development, field forecasting, and identification of related species.
    Determination of Alkylphenol Ethoxylates in Agrochemicals for Tea Garden by UPLC-MS/MS
    LIN Qin, ZHOU Li, LUO Fengjian, YANG Jie, WANG Xinru, SUN Hezhi, YANG Mei, CHEN Zongmao
    Journal of Tea Science. 2019, 39(1):  105-113.  doi:10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2019.01.012
    Abstract ( 122 )   PDF (1178KB) ( 61 )  
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    This study established an ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of alkylphenol polyoxyethylene (APEOs) in pesticide formulations. APEOs were separated on a Waters-BEH C18 column, measured by a multi-reaction monitoring mode (MRM) with an electrospray positive ion source (ESI+), and quantified by an external standard method. The matrix standard curve of APEOs (n=3-20) in aqueous solutions, water emulsion, suspension concentrate, emulsifiable concentrate,granules and wettable powder had a good linearity in the range of 0.047-1β503.6βmg·kg-1with the correlation coefficient (r) between 0.996β1 and 0.999β9. The recovery of APEOs spiked in the level of 0.5-1β503.6βmg·kg-1 ranged from 83.8-120.4% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.6-13.7%, and the limits of quantity (LOQs) of 0.5~150.4βmg·kg-1. Among the 51 pesticide formulations used in tea gardens, the percentage of Octylphenol ethoxylates (OPEOs) was less than 0.5%. The mass fraction of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) was ND-32.1% and the detection rate was 90.2%, indicating the wide use of NPEOs in pesticides in tea gardens.