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Journal of Tea Science ›› 2018, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (4): 331-341.doi: 10.13305/j.cnki.jts.2018.04.001

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Effects of the Combined Application of Biochar and Nitrogen on Growth and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Tea Plants

WANG Feng1,2, WU Zhidan1,2, CHEN Yuzhen1,2, JIANG Fuying1,2, ZHU Liugang1,2, ZHANG Wenjin1,2, WENG Boqi3, YOU Zhiming1,2,*   

  1. 1. Tea Research Institute, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fu′an 355015, China;
    2. Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Tea Tree and Oolong Tea Processes in Fujian, Ministry of Agriculture, Fu′an 355015, China;
    3. Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Agro-Ecological Processes in Hilly Red Soil, Fuzhou 350013, China
  • Received:2017-11-17 Revised:2017-12-27 Online:2018-08-15 Published:2019-10-15

Abstract: A pool experiment was conducted to study the effects of combined application of biochar and nitrogen fertilizer on tea plant growth and 15N transformation (Tree uptake, ammonia volatilization, N2O emission and soil residual) using 15N trace technique. The results showed that the N application treatments improved the tea plant growth, and the tea yields of nitrogen application treatments increased from 68.06% to 112.63% as compared B0N0. Biochar effect on tea yields varied with N applications. Under N0 and N1 conditions, the tea yields of B1N0 and B1N1 treatments increased by 8.82% and 8.75%. But under N2 conditions, the tea yield of B1N2 treatment was slightly reduced, although not significant. Compared with the B0N0, N application significantly increased the amounts of ammonia volatilization and N2O emission. Under N1 conditions, the B1N1 treatment reduced the ammonia volatilization and N2O emission by 5.87% and 4.99% respectively. Under N2 conditions, the B1N2 treatment reduced the ammonia volatilization and N2O emission by 9.97% and 11.41% respectively. Compared with N treatment, the biochar mixed with N treatments increased the nitrogen concentration, 15N and the contribution of N derived from fertilizer (Ndff) in different parts of tea plants, thereby facilitated nitrogen uptake. The 15N use efficiency and 15N residue rate of biochar mixed with N treatments were higher than those of the N treatments with the percentages increasing by 0.46 to 3.93 percent and 4.09 to 14.37 percent respectively. The 15N loss rates of biochar mixed with N treatments were lower than those under N treatments, which were 4.54% to 18.30% differences, especially for B1N1 treatment. In general, application of biochar in tea garden soil could promote N uptake in tea plants, increase the N fixed by soil and decrease N gaseous loss, thus improve the N use efficiency. Taken together, the results supported the theory of “less N fertilizer and increase yield” under B1N1 treatment, and this approach could be applied in tea production.

Key words: biochar, nitrogen fertilizer, tea plants, nitrogen use efficiency, nitrogen gaseous loss, nitrogen residue

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